Keywords
 A6. Modeling, simulation and control
 A6.1. Methods in mathematical modeling
 A6.1.1. Continuous Modeling (PDE, ODE)
 A6.2. Scientific computing, Numerical Analysis & Optimization
 A6.2.1. Numerical analysis of PDE and ODE
 A6.2.6. Optimization
 A6.2.7. High performance computing
 A6.4. Automatic control
 A6.4.1. Deterministic control
 A6.4.3. Observability and Controlability
 A6.4.4. Stability and Stabilization
 B2. Health
 B2.6. Biological and medical imaging
 B5. Industry of the future
 B5.6. Robotic systems
 B9. Society and Knowledge
 B9.5. Sciences
 B9.5.2. Mathematics
 B9.5.3. Physics
 B9.5.4. Chemistry
1 Team members, visitors, external collaborators
Research Scientists
 Takéo Takahashi [Team leader, Inria, Researcher, HDR]
 Ludovick Gagnon [Inria, Researcher]
 Karim Ramdani [Inria, Senior Researcher, HDR]
 JeanClaude Vivalda [Inria, Senior Researcher, HDR]
Faculty Members
 Xavier Antoine [Univ de Lorraine, Professor, HDR]
 Rémi Buffe [Univ de Lorraine, Associate Professor, from Sep 2020]
 David Dos Santos Ferreira [Univ de Lorraine, Professor, HDR]
 Julien Lequeurre [Univ de Lorraine, Associate Professor]
 Alexandre Munnier [Univ de Lorraine, Associate Professor]
 JeanFrançois Scheid [Univ de Lorraine, Associate Professor, HDR]
 Julie Valein [Univ de Lorraine, Associate Professor, HDR]
PostDoctoral Fellows
 Rémi Buffe [Univ de Lorraine, until Aug 2020]
 Eloïse Comte [Inria, until Jun 2020]
PhD Students
 Ismail Badia [Thales]
 Imene Djebour [Univ de Lorraine]
 David Gasperini [Univ de Lorraine]
 Anthony GerberRoth [Univ de Lorraine, from Oct 2020]
 Zhanhao Liu [SaintGobain Research Paris, until Nov 2020]
 Philippe Marchner [SIEMENS INDUSTRY SOFTWARE]
Interns and Apprentices
 Anthony GerberRoth [Inria, from Apr 2020 until Sep 2020]
Administrative Assistant
 Céline Cordier [Inria]
External Collaborator
 Christophe Geuzaine [University of Liège]
2 Overall objectives
In this project, we investigate theoretical and numerical mathematical issues concerning heterogeneous physical systems. The heterogeneities we consider result from the fact that the studied systems involve subsystems of different physical nature. In this wide class of problems, we study two types of systems: fluidstructure interaction systems (FSIS) and complex wave systems (CWS). In both situations, one has to develop specific methods to take the coupling between the subsystems into account.
(FSIS) Fluidstructure interaction systems appear in many applications: medicine (motion of the blood in veins and arteries), biology (animal locomotion in a fluid, such as swimming fishes or flapping birds but also locomotion of microorganisms, such as amoebas), civil engineering (design of bridges or any structure exposed to the wind or the flow of a river), naval architecture (design of boats and submarines, researching into new propulsion systems for underwater vehicles by imitating the locomotion of aquatic animals). FSIS can be studied by modeling their motions through Partial Differential Equations (PDE) and/or Ordinary Differential Equations (ODE), as is classical in fluid mechanics or in solid mechanics. This leads to the study of difficult nonlinear free boundary problems which have constituted a rich and active domain of research over the last decades.
(CWS) Complex wave systems are involved in a large number of applications in several areas of science and engineering: medicine (breast cancer detection, kidney stone destruction, osteoporosis diagnosis, etc.), telecommunications (in urban or submarine environments, optical fibers, etc.), aeronautics (target detection, aircraft noise reduction, etc.) and, in the longer term, quantum supercomputers. For direct problems, most theoretical issues are now widely understood. However, substantial efforts remain to be undertaken concerning the simulation of wave propagation in complex media. Such situations include heterogeneous media with strong local variations of the physical properties (high frequency scattering, multiple scattering media) or quantum fluids (BoseEinstein condensates). In the first case for instance, the numerical simulation of such direct problems is a hard task, as it generally requires solving illconditioned possibly indefinite large size problems, following from space or spacetime discretizations of linear or nonlinear evolution PDE set on unbounded domains. For inverse problems, many questions are open at both the theoretical (identifiability, stability and robustness, etc.) and practical (reconstruction methods, approximation and convergence analysis, numerical algorithms, etc.) levels.
3 Research program
3.1 Control and stabilization of heterogeneous systems
FluidStructure Interaction Systems (FSIS) are present in many physical problems and applications. Their study involves solving several challenging mathematical problems:
 Nonlinearity: One has to deal with a system of nonlinear PDE such as the NavierStokes or the Euler systems;
 Coupling: The corresponding equations couple two systems of different types and the methods associated with each system need to be suitably combined to solve successfully the full problem;
 Coordinates: The equations for the structure are classically written with Lagrangian coordinates whereas the equations for the fluid are written with Eulerian coordinates;
 Free boundary: The fluid domain is moving and its motion depends on the motion of the structure. The fluid domain is thus an unknown of the problem and one has to solve a free boundary problem.
In order to control such FSIS, one has first to analyze the corresponding system of PDE. The oldest works on FSIS go back to the pioneering contributions of Thomson, Tait and Kirchhoff in the 19th century and Lamb in the 20th century, who considered simplified models (potential fluid or Stokes system). The first mathematical studies in the case of a viscous incompressible fluid modeled by the NavierStokes system and a rigid body whose dynamics is modeled by Newton's laws appeared much later 121, 116, 95, and almost all mathematical results on such FSIS have been obtained in the last twenty years.
The most studied FSIS is the problem modeling a rigid body moving in a viscous incompressible fluid ( 77, 74, 114, 85, 89, 118, 120, 104, 87). Many other FSIS have been studied as well. Let us mention 106, 92, 88, 79, 64, 84, 65, 83 for different fluids. The case of deformable structures has also been considered, either for a fluid inside a moving structure (e.g. blood motion in arteries) or for a moving deformable structure immersed in a fluid (e.g. fish locomotion). The obtained coupled FSIS is a complex system and its study raises several difficulties. The main one comes from the fact that we gather two systems of different nature. Some studies have been performed for approximations of this system: 70, 64, 98, 78, 67). Without approximations, the only known results 75, 76 were obtained with very strong assumptions on the regularity of the initial data. Such assumptions are not satisfactory but seem inherent to this coupling between two systems of different natures. In order to study selfpropelled motions of structures in a fluid, like fish locomotion, one can assume that the deformation of the structure is prescribed and known, whereas its displacement remains unknown ( 111). This permits to start the mathematical study of a challenging problem: understanding the locomotion mechanism of aquatic animals. This is related to control or stabilization problems for FSIS. Some first results in this direction were obtained in 93, 66, 108.
3.2 Inverse problems for heterogeneous systems
The area of inverse problems covers a large class of theoretical and practical issues which are important in many applications (see for instance the books of Isakov 94 or Kaltenbacher, Neubauer, and Scherzer 96). Roughly speaking, an inverse problem is a problem where one attempts to recover an unknown property of a given system from its response to an external probing signal. For systems described by evolution PDE, one can be interested in the reconstruction from partial measurements of the state (initial, final or current), the inputs (a source term, for instance) or the parameters of the model (a physical coefficient for example). For stationary or periodic problems (i.e. problems where the time dependency is given), one can be interested in determining from boundary data a local heterogeneity (shape of an obstacle, value of a physical coefficient describing the medium, etc.). Such inverse problems are known to be generally illposed and their study raises the following questions:
 Uniqueness. The question here is to know whether the measurements uniquely determine the unknown quantity to be recovered. This theoretical issue is a preliminary step in the study of any inverse problem and can be a hard task.
 Stability. When uniqueness is ensured, the question of stability, which is closely related to sensitivity, deserves special attention. Stability estimates provide an upper bound for the parameter error given some uncertainty on the data. This issue is closely related to the socalled observability inequality in systems theory.
 Reconstruction. Inverse problems being usually illposed, one needs to develop specific reconstruction algorithms which are robust to noise, disturbances and discretization. A wide class of methods is based on optimization techniques.
We can split our research in inverse problems into two classes which both appear in FSIS and CWS:

Identification for evolution PDE.
Driven by applications, the identification problem for systems of infinite dimension described by evolution PDE has seen in the last three decades a fast and significant growth. The unknown to be recovered can be the (initial/final) state (e.g. state estimation problems 59, 86, 91, 117 for the design of feedback controllers), an input (for instance source inverse problems 56, 68, 80) or a parameter of the system. These problems are generally illposed and many regularization approaches have been developed. Among the different methods used for identification, let us mention optimization techniques ( 73), specific onedimensional techniques (like in 60) or observerbased methods as in 101.
In the last few years, we have developed observers to solve initial data inverse problems for a class of linear systems of infinite dimension. Let us recall that observers, or Luenberger observers 100, have been introduced in automatic control theory to estimate the state of a dynamical system of finite dimension from the knowledge of an output (for more references, see for instance 105 or 119). Using observers, we have proposed in 107, 90 an iterative algorithm to reconstruct initial data from partial measurements for some evolution equations. We are deepening our activities in this direction by considering more general operators or more general sources and the reconstruction of coefficients for the wave equation. In connection with this problem, we study the stability in the determination of these coefficients. To achieve this, we use geometrical optics, which is a classical albeit powerful tool to obtain quantitative stability estimates on some inverse problems with a geometrical background, see for instance 62, 61.

Geometric inverse problems.
We investigate some geometric inverse problems that appear naturally in many applications, like medical imaging and non destructive testing. A typical problem we have in mind is the following: given a domain $\Omega $ containing an (unknown) local heterogeneity $\omega $, we consider the boundary value problem of the form
where $L$ is a given partial differential operator describing the physical phenomenon under consideration (typically a second order differential operator), $B$ the (possibly unknown) operator describing the boundary condition on the boundary of the heterogeneity and $f$ the exterior source used to probe the medium. The question is then to recover the shape of $\omega $ and/or the boundary operator $B$ from some measurement $Mu$ on the outer boundary $\partial \Omega $. This setting includes in particular inverse scattering problems in acoustics and electromagnetics (in this case $\Omega $ is the whole space and the data are far field measurements) and the inverse problem of detecting solids moving in a fluid. It also includes, with slight modifications, more general situations of incomplete data (i.e. measurements on part of the outer boundary) or penetrable inhomogeneities. Our approach to tackle this type of problems is based on the derivation of a series expansion of the inputtooutput map of the problem (typically the DirichlettoNeumann map of the problem for the Calderón problem) in terms of the size of the obstacle.
3.3 Numerical analysis and simulation of heterogeneous systems
Within the team, we have developed in the last few years numerical codes for the simulation of FSIS and CWS. We plan to continue our efforts in this direction.
 In the case of FSIS, our main objective is to provide computational tools for the scientific community, essentially to solve academic problems.
 In the case of CWS, our main objective is to build tools general enough to handle industrial problems. Our strong collaboration with Christophe Geuzaine's team in Liège (Belgium) makes this objective credible, through the combination of DDM (Domain Decomposition Methods) and parallel computing.
Below, we explain in detail the corresponding scientific program.
 Simulation of FSIS: In order to simulate fluidstructure systems, one has to deal with the fact that the fluid domain is moving and that the two systems for the fluid and for the structure are strongly coupled. To overcome this free boundary problem, three main families of methods are usually applied to numerically compute in an efficient way the solutions of the fluidstructure interaction systems. The first method consists in suitably displacing the mesh of the fluid domain in order to follow the displacement and the deformation of the structure. A classical method based on this idea is the A.L.E. (Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian) method: with such a procedure, it is possible to keep a good precision at the interface between the fluid and the structure. However, such methods are difficult to apply for large displacements (typically the motion of rigid bodies). The second family of methods consists in using a fixed mesh for both the fluid and the structure and to simultaneously compute the velocity field of the fluid with the displacement velocity of the structure. The presence of the structure is taken into account through the numerical scheme. Finally, the third class of methods consists in transforming the set of PDEs governing the flow into a system of integral equations set on the boundary of the immersed structure. The members of SPHINX have already worked on these three families of numerical methods for FSIS systems with rigid bodies (see e.g. 112, 97, 113, 109, 110, 102).
 Simulation of CWS: Solving acoustic or electromagnetic scattering problems can become a tremendously hard task in some specific situations. In the high frequency regime (i.e. for small wavelength), acoustic (Helmholtz's equation) or electromagnetic (Maxwell's equations) scattering problems are known to be difficult to solve while being crucial for industrial applications (e.g. in aeronautics and aerospace engineering). Our particularity is to develop new numerical methods based on the hybridization of standard numerical techniques (like algebraic preconditioners, etc.) with approaches borrowed from asymptotic microlocal analysis. Most particularly, we contribute to building hybrid algebraic/analytical preconditioners and quasioptimal Domain Decomposition Methods (DDM) 63, 81, 82 for highly indefinite linear systems. Corresponding threedimensional solvers (like for example GetDDM) will be developed and tested on realistic configurations (e.g. submarines, complete or parts of an aircraft, etc.) provided by industrial partners (Thales, Airbus). Another situation where scattering problems can be hard to solve is the one of dense multiple (acoustic, electromagnetic or elastic) scattering media. Computing waves in such media requires us to take into account not only the interactions between the incident wave and the scatterers, but also the effects of the interactions between the scatterers themselves. When the number of scatterers is very large (and possibly at high frequency 57, 58), specific deterministic or stochastic numerical methods and algorithms are needed. We introduce new optimized numerical methods for solving such complex configurations. Many applications are related to this problem e.g. for osteoporosis diagnosis where quantitative ultrasound is a recent and promising technique to detect a risk of fracture. Therefore, numerical simulation of wave propagation in multiple scattering elastic media in the high frequency regime is a very useful tool for this purpose.
4 Application domains
4.1 Robotic swimmers
Some companies aim at building biomimetic robots that can swim in an aquarium, as toys but also for medical purposes. An objective of Sphinx is to model and to analyze several models of these robotic swimmers. For the moment, we focus on the motion of a nanorobot. In that case, the size of the swimmers leads us to neglect the inertia forces and to only consider the viscosity effects. Such nanorobots could be used for medical purposes to deliver some medicine or perform small surgical operations. In order to get a better understanding of such robotic swimmers, we have obtained control results via shape changes and we have developed simulation tools (see 71, 72, 102, 99). Among all the important issues, we aim to consider the following ones:
 Solve the control problem by limiting the set of admissible deformations.
 Find the “best” location of the actuators, in the sense of being the closest to the exact optimal control.
The main tools for this investigation are the 3D codes that we have developed for simulation of fish in a viscous incompressible fluid (SUSHI3D) or in an inviscid incompressible fluid (SOLEIL).
4.2 Aeronautics
We will develop robust and efficient solvers for problems arising in aeronautics (or aerospace) like electromagnetic compatibility and acoustic problems related to noise reduction in an aircraft. Our interest for these issues is motivated by our close contacts with companies like Airbus or “Thales Systèmes Aéroportés”. We will propose new applications needed by these partners and assist them in integrating these new scientific developments in their homemade solvers. In particular, in collaboration with C. Geuzaine (Université de Liège), we are building a freely available parallel solver based on Domain Decomposition Methods that can handle complex engineering simulations, in terms of geometry, discretization methods as well as physics problems, see http://
5 New software and platforms
5.1 New software
5.1.1 BEC2HPC
 Name: BoseEinstein Condensates : Computation and HPC simulation
 Keywords: BoseEinstein condensates, HPC
 Functional Description: Provide a flexible and efficient HPC software to the quantum physics community for simulating realistic problems.

URL:
https://
team. inria. fr/ bec2hpc/ software/  Contact: Xavier Antoine
6 New results
6.1 Control, stabilization and optimization of heterogeneous systems
Participants: Rémi Buffe, Imene Djebour, Ludovick Gagnon, Julien Lequeurre, JeanFrançois Scheid, Takéo Takahashi, Julie Valein.
Control
Controlling coupled systems is a complex issue depending on the coupling conditions and the equations themselves. Our team has a strong expertise to tackle these kind of problems in the context of fluidstructure interaction systems. More precisely, we obtained the follwing results.
In 29, Jérôme Lohéac and Takéo Takahashi study the locomotion of a ciliated microorganism in a viscous incompressible fluid. They use the Blake ciliated model: the swimmer is a rigid body with tangential displacements at its boundary that allow it to propel in a Stokes fluid. This can be seen as a control problem: using periodical displacements, is it possible to reach a given position and a given orientation? They are interested in the minimal dimension $d$ of the space of controls that allows the microorganism to swim. Their main result states the exact controllability with $d=3$ generically with respect to the shape of the swimmer and with respect to the vector fields generating the tangential displacements. The proof is based on analyticity results and on the study of the particular case of a spheroidal swimmer.
In 34, M. Ramaswamy, A. Roy and T. Takahashi study the controllability of a onedimensional fluidparticle interaction model where the fluid follows the viscous Burgers equation and the point mass obeys Newton’s second law. They prove the null controllability for the velocity of the fluid and the particle and an approximate controllability for the position of the particle with a control variable acting only on the particle. One of the novelties of their work is the fact that they achieve this controllability result in a uniform time for all initial data and without any smallness assumptions on the initial data.
In 44, Imene Djebour shows the local null controllability of a fluidsolid interaction system by using a distributed control located in the fluid. The fluid is modeled by the incompressible NavierStokes system with Navier slip boundary conditions and the rigid body is governed by Newton's laws. Her main result yields that one can drive the velocities of the fluid and of the structure to 0 and one can control exactly the position of the rigid body. One important ingredient of the proof consists in a new Carleman estimate for a linear fluidrigid body system with Navier boundary conditions.
Controlling a system with less inputs than equations is a hard task. In 21 this is successfully done for a system of Kortewegde Vries equations posed on an oriented tree shaped network. The couplings and the controls appear only on boundary conditions.
Stabilization
Stabilization of infinite dimensional systems governed by PDE is a challenging problem. In our team, we have investigated this issue for different kinds of systems (fluid systems and wave systems) using different techniques.
In 45, Imene Djebour, Takéo Takahashi and Julie Valein consider the stabilization of parabolic systems with a finitedimensional control subjected to a constant delay. Their main result shows that the FattoriniHautus criterion yields the existence of such a feedback control, as in the case of stabilization without delay. The proof consists in splitting the system into a finite dimensional unstable part and a stable infinitedimensional part and in applying the Artstein transformation on the finitedimensional system to remove the delay in the control. Using this abstract result, they can prove new results for the stabilization of parabolic systems with constant delay: the $N$dimensional linear reactionconvectiondiffusion equation with $N\ge 1$ and the Oseen system. They also show that this theory can be used to stabilize nonlinear parabolic systems with input delay: for instance the local feedback distributed stabilization of the NavierStokes system around a stationary state.
The aim of 55 is to study the asymptotic stability of the nonlinear Kortewegde Vries equation in the presence of a delayed term in the internal feedback. First, the case where the weight of the term with delay is smaller than the weight of the term without delay is considered and a semiglobal stability result for any length is proved. Secondly, the case where the support of the term without delay is not included in the support of the term with delay is considered. In this case, a local exponential stability result is proved provided the weight of the delayed term is small enough. These results are illustrated by some numerical simulations. The above results on the stabilization of delay systems, added to other contributions on the control and stabilization of PDE constitute the material of the habilitation thesis 36 of Julie Valein, defended on November 4th 2020.
In 47, Ludovick Gagnon, Pierre Lissy and Swann Marx prove the exponential decay of a degenerate parabolic equation. The equation has a degeneracy at $x=0$, which implies, roughly speaking, that the solution is “illpropagated” near $x=0$. The boundary controllability of this equation was already proved in a series of papers using a fine analysis of the spectral properties of the degenerate operator. The exponential stability proved in 47 is obtained by constructing a boundary feedback law using the backstepping method with a Fredholm transformation, yielding the exponential decay of the energy of the solutions. This work exhibits one of the first cases where the Fredholm transformation is used to deduce the exponential decay whereas the Volterra transformation couldn’t be applied successfully.
In 27, a one dimensional piston problem is considered. It consists on the movement of a point mass in a compressible viscous gas. This problem is modeled by Newton's classical law coupled to the compressible NavierStokes equations in one dimension. J. Lequeurre proves the existence of globalintime strong and weak solutions to this problem and the exponential decay of these solutions (in the corresponding function spaces) to an equilibrium chosen by acting on the piston with a constant force.
In 42, Rémi Buffe, Marcelo M. Cavalcanti, Valéria N. Domingos Cavalcanti and Ludovick Gagnon study the decay of the energy of a wave propagating in two heterogeneous media, with two different speeds of propagation, separated by a sharp interface. The sharp interface results in Snell’s law of refraction of the wave propagating from one medium to another. A viscoelastic damping is also considered in one of the media. Under adequate assumptions, this damping decreases the energy of the system. This particular choice of damping, compared to the classical frictional damping, involves additional complications, as it is a memory term, that carries the past history of the wave. Using Dafermo’s change of variables to define the proper decreasing energy, the exponential decay of the energy is proved under geometric assumptions on the support of the viscoelastic damping.
Optimization
We have also considered optimization issues for fluidstructure interaction systems.
J.F. Scheid, V. Calesti and I. Lucardesi study an optimal shape problem for an elastic structure immersed in a viscous incompressible fluid. They aim to establish the existence of an optimal elastic domain associated with an energytype functional for a StokesElasticity system. They want to find an optimal reference domain (the domain before deformation) for the elasticity problem that minimizes an energytype functional. This problem is concerned with 2D geometry and is an extension of 115 for a 1D problem. The optimal domain is searched for in a class of admissible open sets defined with a diffeomorphism of a given domain. The main difficulty lies in the coupling between the Stokes problem written in a eulerian frame and the linear elasticity problem written in a lagrangian form. The shape derivative of an energytype functional has been formally obtained. This will allow us to numerically determine an optimal elastic domain which minimizes the energytype functional under consideration. The rigorous proof of the derivability of the energytype functional with respect to the domain is still in progress.
In 25, T. Hishida, A.L. Silvestre and T. Takahashi consider a rigid body $\mathcal{S}\subset {\mathbb{R}}^{3}$ immersed in an infinitely extended NavierStokes liquid and the motion of the bodyfluid interaction system described from a reference frame attached to $\mathcal{S}$. They are interested in steady motions of this coupled system, where the region occupied by the fluid is the exterior domain $\Omega ={\mathbb{R}}^{3}\setminus \mathcal{S}$. More precisely, they consider the problem of using boundary controls ${v}_{*}$, acting on the whole $\partial \Omega $ or just on a portion $\Gamma $ of $\partial \Omega $, to generate a selfpropelled motion of $\mathcal{S}$ with a target velocity $V\left(x\right):=\xi +\omega \times x$ and to minimize the drag about $\mathcal{S}$. Firstly, an appropriate drag functional is derived from the energy equation of the fluid and the problem is formulated as an optimal boundary control problem. Then the minimization problem is solved for localized controls, such that supp ${v}_{*}\subset \Gamma $, and for tangential controls, i.e, ${v}_{*}{\xb7n}_{\partial \Omega}=0$, where $n$ is the outward unit normal to $\partial \Omega $. They prove the existence of optimal solutions, justify the Gâteaux derivative of the controltostate map, establish the wellposedness of the corresponding adjoint equations and, finally, derive the first order optimality conditions. The results are obtained under smallness restrictions on the objectives $\left\xi \right$ and $\left\omega \right$ and on the boundary controls.
6.2 Direct and inverse problems for heterogeneous systems
Participants: Anthony GerberRoth, Alexandre Munnier, Julien Lequeurre, Karim Ramdani, JeanClaude Vivalda.
Direct problems
Metamaterials (also called negative materials) are artificially structured composite materials whose dielectric permittivity and magnetic permeability are simultaneously negative in some frequency ranges. After publishing 69, K. Ramdani continued his collaboration with R. Bunoiu on the homogenization of composite materials involving both dielectric materials (positive materials) and metamaterials (negative materials). Due to the signchanging coefficients in the equations, classical homogenization theory for scalar or vector Maxwell's systems fails, since it is based on uniform energy estimates which are known only for coefficients with constant sign. More precisely, a homogenization theory for such sign changing problems has been studied by Ramdani et al. in two papers.
 Reference 19 provides a homogenization result for Maxwell's system provided the dielectric and magnetic contrasts between the two materials (the positive and negative ones) is small or large enough. The analysis is based on a precise study of two associated scalar problems: one involving the signchanging permittivity with Dirichlet boundary conditions, another involving the signchanging permeability with Neumann boundary conditions. Let us emphasize that this work is the fruit of a collaboration with two colleagues from Inria Saclay, one from the Inria team DEFI and the other one from the group POEMS.
 In 43, K. Ramdani and his coauthors consider a geometrically degenerate scalar homogenization problem with sign changing coefficients. More precisely, they study a scalar problem in thin periodic composite media formed by two materials, a positive and a negative one. By applying Tcoercivity methods and homogenization techniques specific to the thin periodic domains under consideration, they derive the homogenized limit problems, which exhibit dimensionreduction effects.
In 41, J.F. Scheid and M. Bouguezzi in collaboration with D. Hilhorst (Université ParisSaclay) and Y. Miyamoto (University of Tokyo) prove the convergence of the solution of the onephase Stefan problem in onespace dimension to a selfsimilar profile. The evolutional selfsimilar profile is viewed as a stationary solution of a Stefan problem written in a selfsimilar coordinates system. The proof of the convergence relies on the construction of sub and supersolutions for which it has been proved that they both tend to the same function. This limit function actually corresponds to the selfsimilar solution of the original Stefan problem.
In 53, A. Munnier investigates the asymptotics of Stokes and NavierStokes equations in a perforated domain as the size of the hole tends to 0. In particular, it is proved that eigenvalues of Stokes operator in such a geometry converge to those of the problem set in the domain without hole. For the Navier–Stokes equations, the vorticity is also shown to converge to the vorticity of the limit problem set in the punctured domain.
In 26, J. Lequeurre and A. Munnier propose a functional framework for the analysis of NavierStokes equations using vorticity or stream function formulations. For weak and strong problems, these formulations are proved to be equivalent to the classical ones.
Inverse problems
Alexandre Munnier and Karim Ramdani have obtained a PhD funding from Université de Lorraine to supervise the PhD of Anthony GerberRoth. The thesis is devoted to the investigation of some geometric inverse problems, and can be seen as a continuation of the work initiated by the two supervisors in 103 and 8. In these papers, the authors addressed a particular case of Calderón’s inverse problem in dimension two, namely the case of a homogeneous background containing a finite number of cavities (i.e. heterogeneities of infinitely high conductivities). They proposed a non iterative method to reconstruct the cavities from the knowledge of the DirichlettoNeumann map of the problem. The first contribution of Anthony GerberRoth is to extend the results obtained in 8 in dimension three. This work is in progress.
Besides these static inverse problems, we also investigate estimation issues for timedependent problems.
In 24, JeanClaude Vivalda et al. consider a mathematical model of heat transfer in a direct contact membrane distillation used for the desalination of sea water. They first prove the well posedness of their model, then they design an observer, which is used to make an output tracking trajectory. In 11, JeanClaude Vivalda et al. prove that the class of continuoustime systems which are strongly differentially observable after time sampling is open and dense (for the ${C}^{\infty}$ topology) in the set of pairs $(f,h)$ where $f$ is a (parametrized) vector field given on a compact manifold and $h$ is an observation function.
6.3 Numerical analysis and simulation of heterogeneous systems
Participants: Xavier Antoine, Ismail Badia, David Gasperini, Christophe Geuzaine, Philippe Marchner, JeanFrançois Scheid.
Computational acoustics.
Artificial boundary conditions/PML. While highorder absorbing boundary conditions (HABC) are accurate for smooth fictitious boundaries, the precision of the solution drops in the presence of corners if no specific treatment is applied. In 31, the authors present and analyze two strategies to preserve the accuracy of Padétype HABC at corners: first by using compatibility relations (derived for right angle corners) and second by regularizing the boundary at the corner. Exhaustive numerical results for two and threedimensional problems are reported in the paper. They show that using the compatibility relations is optimal for domains with right angles. For the other cases, the error still remains acceptable, but depends on the choice of the corner treatment according to the angle.
New stable PML (Perfectly Matched Layers) have been proposed in 30 for solving the convected Helmholtz equation for future industrial applications with Siemens (ongoing CIFRE Ph.D. thesis of Philippe Marchner).
Numerical approximation by volume methods. In 22, the authors propose a new high precision IsoGeometric Analysis (IGA) BSpline approximation of the high frequency scattering Helmholtz problem, which minimizes the numerical pollution effects that affect standard Galerkin finite element approaches when combined with HABC.
Domain decomposition. In 28, Xavier Antoine and his coauthors develop the first application of the optimized Schwarz domain decomposition method to aeroacoustics. Highly accurate threedimensional simulations for turbofans are conducted through a collaboration with Siemens. In 32, an improved convergence of the domain decomposition method is obtained thanks to the newly designed absorbing boundary conditions proposed in 31 which are used as transmitting boundary conditions.
Integral equation approximation. In 20, a novel weak coupling technique is proposed for solving high frequency acoustic scattering problems by penetrable inhomogeneous media. These results were obtained during the CIFRE contract of the Ph.D. thesis of B. Caudron with Thalès. The industrialization of the method is currently being developed for Maxwell's equations during the Ph.D. thesis of I. Badia with Thalès (CIFRE contract).
In 12, an extensive review of recent methods for preconditioning fast integral equation solvers is mainly developed for timeharmonic acoustics, but also for electromagnetic and elastic waves.
Scattering by moving boundaries. A new frequency domain method has been introduced in 49 during the Ph.D. thesis of D. Gasperini to solve scattering problems by moving boundaries. This research was done during a contract with the company IEE (Luxembourg) for modeling the radar detection inside cars at very high frequency.
Underwater acoustics. New adiabatic pseudodifferential models as well as their numerical approximation are introduced in 33 for the simulation of the propagation of wave fields in underwater acoustics. In particular, the calculation of gallery modes is shown to be accurately obtained. This work is related to a new collaboration with P. Petrov from the V.I. Il’ichev Pacific Oceanological Institute, Vladivostok, Russia.
In 54, we develop an efficient secondorder scheme with HABC for the onedimensional GreenNaghdi equation that arises in water waves. We propose an adaptive method so that the accuracy of the scheme is maintained while strongly accelerating the speedup, in particular because of the presence of a nonlocal time convolutiontype operator involved in the HABC.
Quantum theory.
With E. Lorin, Xavier Antoine proposes in 15 an optimization technique of the convergence rate of relaxation Schwarz domain decomposition methods for the Schrödinger equation. This analysis is based on the use of microlocal analysis tools.
In 14, Xavier Antoine and his coauthors develop an implementation of the PML technique in the framework of Fourier pseudospectral approximation schemes for the fast rotating GrossPitaevskii equation. This is the first work related to the Inria associated team BEC2HPC. In 48, we give an overview of the BEC2HPC parallel solver developed in the BEC2HPC associated team for computing the stationary states of fast rotating BECs in 2D/3D. In 39, in collaboration with Q. Tang and J. Shen (Purdue University), we propose some new efficient spectral schemes for the dynamics of the nonlinear Schrödinger and GrossPitaevskii equations.
In 13, X. Antoine and his coauthors develop new Fourier pseudospectral schemes including a PML for the dynamics of the curved static Dirac equation. The goal is to be able to better understand quantum phenomena related to the charge carriers in strained graphene, with potential long term applications for designing quantum computers. This is a collaboration with E. Lorin (Carleton University), F. FillionGourdeau and S. Mac Lean from the Institute for Quantum Computing, University of Waterloo.
In 40, X. Antoine and X. Zhao (Wuhan University) introduce some new locally smooth singular absorption profiles for the spectral numerical solution of the nonlinear KleinGordon equation. In particular, this leads to an accuracy of the scheme that does not depend on the small parameter arising in the nonrelativistic regime. Applications are also given for the rotating Klein Gordonequation used in the modeling of the cosmic superfluid in a rotating frame.
Fractional PDE.
In 50, with S. Ji, G. Pang, and J. Zhang, Xavier Antoine is interested in the development and analysis of artificial boundary conditions for nonlocal Schrödinger equations that are a generalization of some fractional Schrödinger equations.
The authors propose in 17 the construction and implementation of PML operators for the one and twodimensional fractional Laplacian, and some extensions.
In 16, 38, efficient linear algebra algorithms are built and tested for solving some classes of linear systems defined through functions. Applications are considered for fractional PDE.
In 37, a Schwarz waveform relaxation domain decomposition method has been introduced for solving space fractional PDE related to Schrödinger and heat equations.
Fluid mechanics.
Chaotic advection in a viscous fluid under an electromagnetic field. J.F. Scheid, J.P. Brancher (IECL) and J. Fontchastagner (GREEN) study the chaotic behavior of trajectories of a dynamical system arising from a coupling system beetwen Stokes flow and an electromagnetic field. They consider an electrically conductive viscous fluid crossed by a uniform electric current. The fluid is subjected to a magnetic field induced by the presence of a set of magnets. The resulting electromagnetic force acts on the conductive fluid and generates a flow in the fluid. According to a specific arrangement of the magnets surrounding the fluid, vortices can be generated and the trajectories of the dynamical system associated to the stationary velocity field in the fluid may have chaotic behavior. The aim of this study is to numerically show the chaotic behavior of the flow for the proposed disposition of the magnets along the container of the fluid. The flow in the fluid is governed by the Stokes equations with the Laplace force induced by the electric current and the magnetic field. An article is in preparation.
7 Bilateral contracts and grants with industry
7.1 Bilateral grants with industry
 Company: Siemens
 Duration: 2018 – 2021
 Participants: X. Antoine, C. Geuzaine, P. Marchner
 Abstract: This CIFRE grant funds the PhD thesis of Philippe Marchner, which concerns the numerical simulation of aeroacoustic problems using domain decomposition methods.
 Company: Thales
 Duration: 2018 – 2021
 Participants: X. Antoine, I. Badia, C. Geuzaine
 Abstract: This CIFRE grant funds the PhD thesis of Ismail Badia, which concerns the HPC simulation by domain decomposition methods of electromagnetic problems.
 Company: IEE
 Duration: 2018 – 2021
 Participants: X. Antoine, D. Gasperini, C. Geuzaine
 Abstract: This FNR grant funds the PhD thesis of David Gasperini, which concerns the numerical simulation of scattering problems with moving boundaries.
 Company: CEA
 Duration: May to September 2020
 Participants: A. Ouattara, J.F. Scheid
 Abstract: This grant funds the internship of Abdoulaye Ouattara, which concerns the modelling and simulation of the propagation of pitting corrosion.
8 Partnerships and cooperations
8.1 International initiatives
8.1.1 Inria associate team not involved in an IIL
BEC2HPC
 Title: BoseEinstein Condensates: Computation and HPC simulation
 Duration: 2019  2022
 Coordinator: Xavier Antoine
 Participants: Jérémie Gaidamour, Christophe Geuzaine, Qinglin Tang, Hanquan Wang, Yong Zhang

Partners:
 College of Mathematics, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China)
 Inria contact: Xavier Antoine
 Summary: All members of the associate team are experts in the mathematical modeling and numerical simulation of PDEs related to engineering and physics applications. The first objective of the associate team is to develop efficient highorder numerical methods for computing the stationary states and dynamics of BoseEinstein Condensates (BEC) modeled by GrossPitaevskii Equations (GPEs). A second objective is to implement and validate these new methods in a HPC environment to simulate large scale 2D and 3D problems in quantum physics. Finally, a third objective is to provide a flexible and efficient HPC software to the quantum physics community for simulating realistic problems.
MOUSTIQ
 Title: Modeling and control of infectious diseases, wave propagation in heterogeneous media and nonlinear dispersive equations
 Duration: 2020  2023
 Coordinator: Ludovick GAGNON
 Participants: Takéo Takahashi, Julie Valein, Rémi Buffe, Swann Marx, Ademir Pazoto, Stefanella Boatto, Felipe Chaves, Fagner Araruna

Partners:
 Mathematics Department, Universidade Federale da Paraiba (Brazil)
 Inria contact: Ludovick GAGNON

Summary:
This project is divided into three research axes, all in the field of control theory and within the field of expertise of the Sphinx project team.
The first axis consists in improving a network transport model of virus spread by mosquitoes such as Zika, Dengue or Chikungunya. The objective is to introduce timedelay terms into the model to take into account delays such as incubation time or reaction time of health authorities. The study of the controllability of the model will then be carried out in order to optimize the reaction time as well as the coverage of the population in the event of an outbreak.
The second axis concerns the controllability of waves in a heterogeneous environment. These media are characterized by discontinuous propagation speed at the interface between two media, leading to refraction phenomena according to Snell's law. Only a few controllability results are known in restricted geometric settings, the last result being due to the Inria principal investigator. Examples of applications of the controllability of these models range from seismic exploration to the clearance of antipersonnel mines.
Finally, the last axis aims to study the controllability of nonlinear dispersive equations. These equations are distinguished by a decrease of the solutions due to the different propagation speed of each frequencies. Only few tools are available to obtain arbitrarily small time controllability results of these equations and many important questions remain open. These equations can be used to model, for example, the propagation of waves in shallow waters as well as the propagation of signals in an optical fiber.
8.2 National initiatives
ANR

Project Acronym : IFSMACS
Project Title : FluidStructure Interaction: Modeling, Analysis, Control and Simulation
Coordinator: Takéo Takahashi
Participants: Julien Lequeurre, Alexandre Munnier, JeanFrançois Scheid, Takéo Takahashi
Duration : 48 months (started on October 1st, 2016)
Other partners: Institut de Mathématiques de Bordeaux, Inria Paris (REO), Institut de Mathématiques de Toulouse
Abstract: The aim of this project is to analyze systems composed by structures immersed in a fluid. Studies of such systems can be motivated by many applications (blood motion in veins, fish locomotion, design of submarines, etc.) but also by the corresponding challenging mathematical problems. Among the important difficulties inherent to these systems, one can quote nonlinearity, coupling and freeboundaries. Our objectives include asymptotic analyses of FSIS, the study of controllability and stabilizability of FSIS, the understanding of locomotion of selfpropelled structures and the analysis and development of numerical tools to simulate fluidstructure systems.

Project acronym: ISDEEC
Project title: Interaction entre Systèmes Dynamiques, Equations d'Evolution et Contrôle
Coordinator: Romain Joly (Institut Fourier, Grenoble)
Participant: Julie Valein
Other partners: Institut Fourier, Grenoble; Département de Mathématiques d'Orsay
Duration: 36 months (20172020)
URL: http://
isdeec. math. cnrs. fr/ Abstract The aim of the project is to study the qualitative dynamics of various classes of PDEs and classes of ODEs with special structure. This work program requires expertise in different mathematical domains such as dynamical systems theory, PDE techniques, control theory, geometry, functional analysis... while the current trend in mathematics is for high specialisation. The purpose of this project is to create and extend interactions between experts of these various domains, in order to deepen our understanding of the dynamics of evolution equations and to explore the new challenging questions, which will emerge.

Project Acronym: ODISSE
Project title: Observer Design for Infinitedimensional Systems
Coordinator: Vincent Andrieu (LAGEPP, Université de Lyon)
Local coordinator: Karim Ramdani
Duration: 48 months (started on October 1st 2019)
Participants: Ludovick Gagnon, Karim Ramdani, Julie Valein and JeanClaude Vivalda.
Other partners: LAAS, LAGEPP, InriaSaclay (M3DISIM)
Abstract: This ANR project includes 3 workpackages
 Theoretical aspects of observability and identifiability.
 From finite dimensional systems to infinite dimensional systems : Infinitedimensional Luenberger observers, Parametric identification and adaptive estimation algorithm, Infinitedimensional observers for finitedimensional systems.
 From infinite dimensional systems to finite dimensional systems : discretization, hierarchical reduction.

Project Acronym : TRECOS
Project Title : New TREnds in COntrol and Stabilization
Coordinator: Sylvain Ervedoza (Université de Bordeaux)
Participants: Ludovick Gagnon, Takéo Takahashi, Julie Valein
Duration : 48 months (20212024)
Other partners: Institut de Mathématiques de Bordeaux, Sorbonne University, Institut de Mathématiques de Toulouse
Abstract: The goal of this project is to address new directions of research in control theory for partial differential equations, triggered by models from ecology and biology. In particular, our projet will deal with the development of new methods which will be applicable in many applications, from the treatment of cancer cells to the analysis of the thermic efficiency of buildings, and from control issues for the biological control of pests to cardiovascular fluid flows. URL:https://
www. math. ubordeaux. fr/ ~servedoza/ indexANR. html
9 Dissemination
9.1 Promoting scientific activities
9.1.1 Scientific Events: Organization
David Dos Santos Ferreira was the head of the Organization Committee of the national conference of the SMF (French Mathematical Society) that was scheduled in Nancy on 25th29th may 2020. Unfortunately, this conference has been cancelled due to the coronavirus.
9.1.2 Journal
Member of the editorial boards
Since 2018, Xavier Antoine is a member of the editorial board of “Multiscale in Science and Engineering (Springer)” and “International Journal of Computer Mathematics (Taylor and Francis)”.
Reviewer  reviewing activities
Members of the team often write reviews for many journals covering the topics investigated in SPHINX (SIAM Journals, JCP, M3AS, ESAIM COCV,...).
9.1.3 Scientific expertise
 Xavier Antoine is a member of the panel “Applied Mathematics and Statistics” of the Academy of Finland since February 2020.
9.1.4 Research administration
 Xavier Antoine was the Head of the Institut Elie Cartan de Lorraine laboratory until 31/08/2020.
 Ludovick Gagnon is International Deputy of Inria Nancy  Grand Est.
 Karim Ramdani was until the end of 2020 a board member of the RNBM (Réseau National des Bibliothèques de Mathématiques). He was in charge of Open Access issues (with Benoît Kloeckner). Since October 2018, he is also a member of the Working Group “Publications” of the national “Comité pour la Science Ouverte” of the French ministry of Higher Education, Research and Innovation. He was also a member of the hiring committee of an assistant professor at Polytech Nancy (Université de Lorraine).
 Julie Valein is a coorganizer of the weekly seminar of the PDE team of the Institut Elie Cartan de Lorraine in Nancy, since September 2018. She was also a member of the hiring committee of an assistant professor at Polytech Nancy (Université de Lorraine).
9.2 Teaching  Supervision  Juries
9.2.1 Teaching
Except L. Gagnon, K. Ramdani, T. Takahashi and J.C. Vivalda, SPHINX members have teaching obligations at “Université de Lorraine” and are teaching at least 192 hours each year. They teach mathematics at different level (Licence, Master, Engineering school). Many of them have pedagogical responsibilities.
9.2.2 Supervision
The following PhD was defended this year:
 I. Djebour, Controlability and stabilization of fluidstructure interaction problems, (started in November 2017 and defended in December 2020), supervised by T. Takahashi.
The following PhD are in progress:
 I. Badia, HPC simulation by domain decomposition methods of electromagnetic problems, (started in September 2019), supervised by X. Antoine and Ch. Geuzaine.
 D. Gasperini, Design of a new multifrequency PDEbased approach for the numerical simulation of the Doppler effect arising in acoustic and electromagnetism (started in September 2017), supervised by X. Antoine and C. Geuzaine.
 A. GerberRoth, On some geometric inverse problems (started in October 2020), supervised by A. Munnier and K. Ramdani.
 P. Marchner, Numerical simulation by domain decomposition methods of aeroacoustic problems (started in September 2019), supervised by X. Antoine and C. Geuzaine.
9.2.3 Juries
 Xavier Antoine reviewed the PhD theses of G. Nehmetallah (Université de Nice, December 2020) and P. Payen (Université de Paris 13, December 2020).
 Karim Ramdani was a member of the PhD jury of I. Djebour (Université de Lorraine, December 2020) and a member of the HDR jury of J. Valein (Université de Lorraine, November 2020).
 Julie Valein was a member of the PhD jury of Nahed Naceur (Université de Lorraine, December 2020).
 JeanClaude Vivalda was a member of the PhD jury of Basma Zitouni defended on 29 December 2020 at the University of Sfax (Tunisia).
10 Scientific production
10.1 Major publications
 1 article'On the numerical solution and dynamical laws of nonlinear fractional Schrödinger/GrossPitaevskii equations'.Int. J. Comput. Math.95672018, 14231443URL: https://doi.org/10.1080/00207160.2018.1437911
 2 article 'Fluidstructure interaction system with Coulomb's law'. SIAM Journal on Mathematical Analysis 2017
 3 article 'Homogenization of Maxwell's equations and related scalar problems with signchanging coefficients'. Annales de la Faculté des Sciences de Toulouse. Mathématiques. 2020

4
article'From semiclassical Strichartz estimates to uniform
${L}^{p}$ resolvent estimates on compact manifolds'.Int. Math. Res. Not. IMRN162018, 51785218URL: https://doi.org/10.1093/imrn/rnx042  5 article'Lagrangian controllability of the 1dimensional Kortewegde Vries equation'.SIAM J. Control Optim.5462016, 31523173URL: https://doi.org/10.1137/140964783
 6 article'Point vortex dynamics as zeroradius limit of the motion of a rigid body in an irrotational fluid'.Inventiones Mathematicae21412018, 171287
 7 article'Existence of local strong solutions to fluidbeam and fluidrod interaction systems'.Annales de l'Institut Henri Poincaré (C) Non Linear Analysis364July 2019, 11051149
 8 article'Calderón cavities inverse problem as a shapefrommoments problem'.Quarterly of Applied Mathematics762018, 407435
 9 article'Adaptive observer for agestructured population with spatial diffusion'.NorthWestern European Journal of Mathematics42018, 3958
 10 article'Shape optimization for a fluidelasticity system'.Pure Appl. Funct. Anal.312018, 193217
10.2 Publications of the year
International journals
 11 article'Strong differential observability for sampled systems'.SIAM Journal on Control and Optimization586December 2020, 38143841
 12 article 'An introduction to operator preconditioning for the fast iterative integral equation solution of timeharmonic scattering problems'. Multiscale Science and Engineering 2021
 13 article'Pseudospectral computational methods for the timedependent Dirac equation in static curved spaces'.Journal of Computational Physics4112020, 109412
 14 article'Perfectly Matched Layer for computing the dynamics of nonlinear Schrödinger equations by pseudospectral methods. Application to rotating BoseEinstein condensates'.Communications in Nonlinear Science and Numerical Simulation902020, 105406
 15 article'Explicit Determination of Robin Parameters in Optimized Schwarz Waveform Relaxation Methods for Schrödinger Equations Based on Pseudodifferential Operators'.Communications in Computational Physics272020, 10321052

16
article
'ODEbased Doublepreconditioning for Solving Linear Systems
${A}^{}x=b$ and$f\left(A\right)x=b$ '. Numerical Linear Algebra with Applications 2021  17 article 'Derivation and analysis of computational methods for fractional Laplacian equations with absorbing layers'. Numerical Algorithms 2020
 18 article'Regular propagators of bilinear quantum systems'.Journal of Functional Analysis2786April 2020, 108412
 19 article 'Homogenization of Maxwell's equations and related scalar problems with signchanging coefficients'. Annales de la Faculté des Sciences de Toulouse. Mathématiques. 2020
 20 article 'Optimized weak coupling of boundary element and finite element methods for acoustic scattering'. Journal of Computational Physics 421 2020
 21 article'Boundary controllability of the Kortewegde Vries equation on a treeshaped network'.Evolution Equations and Control Theory93September 2020, 673692
 22 article 'Non Uniform Rational BSplines and Lagrange approximations for timeharmonic acoustic scattering: convergence, accuracy, absorbing boundary conditions'. Mathematical and Computer Modelling of Dynamical Systems 2021
 23 article'Simultaneous global exact controllability in projection of infinite 1D bilinear Schrödinger equations'.Dynamics of Partial Differential Equations173July 2020, 275306
 24 article'Analysis and Output Tracking Design for the Direct Contact Membrane distillation parabolic system'.Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications4912November 2020, 30
 25 article 'Optimal boundary control for steady motions of a selfpropelled body in a NavierStokes liquid'. ESAIM: Control, Optimisation and Calculus of Variations 26 92 2020
 26 article 'Vorticity and stream function formulations for the 2d NavierStokes equations in a bounded domain'. Journal of Mathematical Fluid Mechanics 22 15 February 2020
 27 article 'Weak Solutions for a System Modeling the Movement of a Piston in a Viscous Compressible Gas'. Journal of Mathematical Fluid Mechanics 22 3 June 2020
 28 article 'A NonOverlapping Schwarz Domain Decomposition Method with HighOrder Finite Elements for Flow Acoustics'. Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering 2020
 29 article'Controllability of low Reynolds numbers swimmers of ciliate type'.ESAIM: Control, Optimisation and Calculus of Variations26April 2020, 31
 30 article 'Stable Perfectly Matched Layers with Lorentz transformation for the convected Helmholtz equation'. Journal of Computational Physics February 2021
 31 article'Corner treatments for highorder local absorbing boundary conditions in highfrequency acoustic scattering'.Journal of Computational Physics4012020, 109029
 32 article'A nonoverlapping domain decomposition method with highorder transmission conditions and crosspoint treatment for Helmholtz problems'.Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering368August 2020, 1131622020
 33 article'Pseudodifferential adiabatic mode parabolic equations in curvilinear coordinates and their numerical solution'.Journal of Computational Physics410June 2020, 109392
 34 article 'Remark on the global null controllability for a viscous Burgersparticle system with particle supported control'. Applied Mathematics Letters September 2020
Doctoral dissertations and habilitation theses
 35 thesis 'Controllability and stabilization of fluidstructure problems'. Université de Lorraine December 2020
 36 thesis 'Contrôle, stabilité et problèmes inverses pour les systèmes à retard et les réseaux : une contribution mathématique et numérique'. Université de Lorraine November 2020
Reports & preprints
 37 misc 'A Schwarz waveform relaxation method for timedependent space fractional Schrödinger/heat equations'. January 2021
 38 misc 'Convergent multimatrix fractional linear system solvers'. December 2020
 39 misc 'Scalar Auxiliary Variable/Lagrange multiplier based pseudospectral schemes for the dynamics of nonlinear Schrödinger/GrossPitaevskii equations'. September 2020
 40 misc 'Pseudospectral methods with pml for nonlinear kleingordon equations in classical and nonrelativistic regimes'. January 2021
 41 misc 'Convergence to a self similar solution of a onedimensional onephase Stefan Problem'. December 2020
 42 misc 'Control and exponential stability for a transmission problem of a viscoelastic wave equation'. February 2020
 43 misc 'Tcoercivity for the asymptotic analysis of scalar problems with signchanging coefficients in thin periodic domains'. October 2020
 44 misc 'Local null controllability of a fluidrigid body interaction problem with Navier slip boundary conditions'. January 2021
 45 misc 'Feedback stabilization of parabolic systems with input delay'. April 2020
 46 misc 'Bilinear quantum systems on compact graphs: wellposedness and global exact controllability'. July 2020
 47 misc 'A Fredholm transformation for the rapid stabilization of a degenerate parabolic equation'. October 2020
 48 misc 'BEC2HPC: a HPC spectral solver for nonlinear Schrödinger and GrossPitaevskii equations. Stationary states computation'. October 2020
 49 misc 'A frequency domain method for scattering problems with moving boundaries'. February 2021
 50 misc 'Artificial boundary conditions for the semidiscretized onedimensional nonlocal Schrödinger equation'. July 2020
 51 misc 'Existence of strong solutions for a system of interaction between a compressible viscous fluid and a wave equation'. July 2020
 52 misc 'Lp theory for the interaction between the incompressible NavierStokes system and a damped plate'. May 2020
 53 misc 'Asymptotic limit for the stokes and navierstokes problems in a planar domain with a vanishing hole'. November 2020
 54 misc 'A fast secondorder discretization scheme for the linearized GreenNaghdi system with absorbing boundary conditions'. February 2021
 55 misc 'On the asymptotic stability of the Kortewegde Vries equation with timedelayed internal feedback'. February 2021
10.3 Cited publications
 56 article'Solving inverse source problems using observability. Applications to the EulerBernoulli plate equation'.SIAM J. Control Optim.4832009, 16321659
 57 incollection'Computational Methods for Multiple Scattering at High Frequency with Applications to Periodic Structures Calculations'.Wave Propagation in Periodic MediaProgress in Computational Physics, Vol. 1Bentham2010, 73107
 58 article'Wide Frequency Band Numerical Approaches for Multiple Scattering Problems by Disks'.Journal of Algorithms & Computational Technologies622012, 241259
 59 article 'A nudgingbased data assimilation method : the Back and Forth Nudging (BFN) algorithm'. Nonlin. Proc. Geophys. 15 305319 2008
 60 article'Reconstruction of the parameters of a system of connected beams from dynamic boundary measurements'.Zap. Nauchn. Sem. S.Peterburg. Otdel. Mat. Inst. Steklov. (POMI)324Mat. Vopr. Teor. Rasprostr. Voln. 342005, 2042, 262
 61 article'Stability estimates for the anisotropic wave equation from the DirichlettoNeumann map'.Inverse Probl. Imaging542011, 745773URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.3934/ipi.2011.5.745
 62 article'Stable determination of coefficients in the dynamical anisotropic Schrödinger equation from the DirichlettoNeumann map'.Inverse Problems26122010, 125010, 30URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/02665611/26/12/125010
 63 article'A QuasiOptimal NonOverlapping Domain Decomposition Algorithm for the Helmholtz Equation'. Journal of Computational Physics22312012, 262280
 64 article'Existence of weak solutions for an interaction problem between an elastic structure and a compressible viscous fluid'.J. Math. Pures Appl. (9)84112005, 15151554URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.matpur.2005.08.004
 65 article'Regular solutions of a problem coupling a compressible fluid and an elastic structure'.J. Math. Pures Appl. (9)9442010, 341365URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.matpur.2010.04.002
 66 article'Local null controllability of a twodimensional fluidstructure interaction problem'.ESAIM Control Optim. Calc. Var.1412008, 142URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/cocv:2007031
 67 article'Existence of strong solutions for the motion of an elastic structure in an incompressible viscous fluid'.Interfaces Free Bound.1432012, 273306URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.4171/IFB/282
 68 article'Determination of point wave sources by pointwise observations: stability and reconstruction'.Inverse Problems1632000, 723748
 69 article 'Homogenization of materials with sign changing coefficients'. Communications in Mathematical Sciences 2016
 70 article'Existence of weak solutions for the unsteady interaction of a viscous fluid with an elastic plate'.J. Math. Fluid Mech.732005, 368404URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s000210040121y
 71 article'Generic controllability of 3D swimmers in a perfect fluid'.SIAM J. Control Optim.5052012, 28142835URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1137/110828654
 72 article'Locomotion and control of a selfpropelled shapechanging body in a fluid'.J. Nonlinear Sci.2132011, 325385URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s0033201090848
 73 article'Variational approach for identifying a coefficient of the wave equation'.Cubo922007, 81101
 74 article'Existence of solutions for the equations modelling the motion of a rigid body in a viscous fluid'.Comm. Partial Differential Equations25562000, 10191042URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03605300008821540
 75 article'Motion of an elastic solid inside an incompressible viscous fluid'.Arch. Ration. Mech. Anal.17612005, 25102URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s0020500403407
 76 article'The interaction between quasilinear elastodynamics and the NavierStokes equations'.Arch. Ration. Mech. Anal.17932006, 303352URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s0020500503852
 77 article'Existence of weak solutions for the motion of rigid bodies in a viscous fluid'.Arch. Ration. Mech. Anal.14611999, 5971URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s002050050136
 78 article'Weak solutions for a fluidelastic structure interaction model'.Rev. Mat. Complut.1422001, 523538
 79 article'On weak solutions for fluidrigid structure interaction: compressible and incompressible models'.Comm. Partial Differential Equations25782000, 13991413URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03605300008821553
 80 article'Determination of point wave sources by boundary measurements'.Inverse Problems1742001, 11271139
 81 article'Approximate Local MagnetictoElectric Surface Operators for TimeHarmonic Maxwell's Equations'. Journal of Computational Physics152792015, 241260
 82 article'A quasioptimal domain decomposition algorithm for the timeharmonic Maxwell's equations'.Journal of Computational Physics29412015, 3857
 83 article'On the motion of several rigid bodies in an incompressible nonNewtonian fluid'.Nonlinearity2162008, 13491366URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/09517715/21/6/012
 84 article'On the motion of rigid bodies in a viscous compressible fluid'.Arch. Ration. Mech. Anal.16742003, 281308URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s0020500202425
 85 article'On the motion of rigid bodies in a viscous incompressible fluid'.J. Evol. Equ.33Dedicated to Philippe Bénilan2003, 419441URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s0002800301101
 86 article'Observers and initial state recovering for a class of hyperbolic systems via Lyapunov method'.Automatica4972013, 2250  2260
 87 article'On the motion of a rigid body in a NavierStokes liquid under the action of a timeperiodic force'.Indiana Univ. Math. J.5862009, 28052842URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1512/iumj.2009.58.3758
 88 article'The movement of a solid in an incompressible perfect fluid as a geodesic flow'.Proc. Amer. Math. Soc.14062012, 21552168URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1090/S00029939201111219X
 89 article'Existence for an unsteady fluidstructure interaction problem'.M2AN Math. Model. Numer. Anal.3432000, 609636URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/m2an:2000159
 90 article'Reconstructing initial data using observers: error analysis of the semidiscrete and fully discrete approximations'.Numer. Math.12022012, 307343
 91 article'Recovering the observable part of the initial data of an infinitedimensional linear system with skewadjoint generator'.Mathematics of Control, Signals, and Systems2632014, 435462
 92 article'On the motion and collisions of rigid bodies in an ideal fluid'.Asymptot. Anal.56342008, 125158
 93 article'Exact controllability of a fluidrigid body system'.J. Math. Pures Appl. (9)8742007, 408437URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.matpur.2007.01.005
 94 book 'Inverse problems for partial differential equations'. 127 Applied Mathematical Sciences New York Springer 2006
 95 article'The solvability of the problem of the motion of a rigid body in a viscous incompressible fluid'.Dinamika Splošn. SredyVyp. 18 Dinamika Zidkost. so Svobod. Granicami1974, 249253, 255
 96 book 'Iterative regularization methods for nonlinear illposed problems'. 6 Radon Series on Computational and Applied Mathematics Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co. KG, Berlin 2008
 97 article'Convergence of a LagrangeGalerkin method for a fluidrigid body system in ALE formulation'.M2AN Math. Model. Numer. Anal.4242008, 609644URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/m2an:2008020
 98 article'Existence of strong solutions to a fluidstructure system'.SIAM J. Math. Anal.4312011, 389410URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1137/10078983X
 99 article 'Controllability of 3D Low Reynolds Swimmers'. ESAIM:COCV 2013
 100 article'Observing the state of a linear system'.IEEE Trans. Mil. Electron.MIL81964, 7480
 101 article'Joint state and parameter estimation for distributed mechanical systems'.Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering1972008, 659677
 102 article'Locomotion of articulated bodies in an ideal fluid: 2D model with buoyancy, circulation and collisions'.Math. Models Methods Appl. Sci.20102010, 18991940URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1142/S0218202510004829
 103 article 'Conformal mapping for cavity inverse problem: an explicit reconstruction formula'. Applicable Analysis 2016

104
article'Large time behavior for a simplified
$N$ dimensional model of fluidsolid interaction'.Comm. Partial Differential Equations30132005, 377417URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1081/PDE200050080  105 book 'Observers for linear systems'. 170 Mathematics in Science and Engineering Orlando, FL Academic Press Inc. 1983
 106 article'On the motion of a rigid body immersed in a bidimensional incompressible perfect fluid'.Ann. Inst. H. Poincaré Anal. Non Linéaire2412007, 139165URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anihpc.2005.12.004
 107 article'Recovering the initial state of an infinitedimensional system using observers'.Automatica46102010, 16161625
 108 article'Feedback stabilization of a fluidstructure model'.SIAM J. Control Optim.4882010, 53985443URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1137/080744761
 109 article'A modified LagrangeGalerkin method for a fluidrigid system with discontinuous density'.Numer. Math.12222012, 341382URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s0021101204601
 110 article'The LagrangeGalerkin method for fluidstructure interaction problems'.Boundary Value Problems.2013, 213246
 111 article'An initial and boundary value problem modeling of fishlike swimming'.Arch. Ration. Mech. Anal.18832008, 429455URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s0020500700922
 112 article'Convergence of the LagrangeGalerkin method for the equations modelling the motion of a fluidrigid system'.SIAM J. Numer. Anal.4342005, 15361571 (electronic)URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1137/S0036142903438161
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