Application Domains
Bilateral Contracts and Grants with Industry
Partnerships and Cooperations
Bibliography
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## Section: Research Program

### Big Data

Big data (like its relative, data science) has become a buzz word, with different meanings depending on your perspective, e.g. 100 terabytes is big for a transaction processing system, but small for a web search engine. It is also a moving target, as shown by two landmarks in DBMS products: the Teradata database machine in the 1980's and the Oracle Exadata database machine in 2010.

Although big data has been around for a long time, it is now more important than ever. We can see overwhelming amounts of data generated by all kinds of devices, networks and programs, e.g. sensors, mobile devices, connected objects (IoT), social networks, computer simulations, satellites, radiotelescopes, etc. Storage capacity has doubled every 3 years since 1980 with prices steadily going down (e.g. 1 Gigabyte of Hard Disk Drive for: 1M$in 1982, 1K$ in 1995, 0.02\$ in 2015), making it affordable to keep more data around. And massive data can produce high-value information and knowledge, which is critical for data analysis, decision support, forecasting, business intelligence, research, (data-intensive) science, etc.

The problem of big data has three main dimensions, quoted as the three big V's:

• Volume: refers to massive amounts of data, making it hard to store, manage, and analyze (big analytics);

• Velocity: refers to continuous data streams being produced, making it hard to perform online processing and analysis;

• Variety: refers to different data formats, different semantics, uncertain data, multiscale data, etc., making it hard to integrate and analyze.

There are also other V's such as: validity (is the data correct and accurate?); veracity (are the results meaningful?); volatility (how long do you need to store this data?).

Many different big data management solutions have been designed, primarily for the cloud, as cloud and big data are synergistic. They typically trade consistency for scalability, simplicity and flexibility, hence the new term Data-Intensive Scalable Computing (DISC). Examples of DISC systems include data processing frameworks (e.g. Hadoop MapReduce, Apache Spark, Pregel), file systems (e.g. Google GFS, HDFS), NoSQL systems (Google BigTable, Hbase, MongoDB), NewSQL systems (Google F1, CockroachDB, LeanXcale). In Zenith, we exploit or extend DISC technologies to fit our needs for scientific workflow management and scalable data analysis.