## Section: Research Program

### Fluid and reduced kinetic models for plasmas

As already said, kinetic plasmas computer simulations are very intensive, because of the gyrokinetic turbulence. In some situations, it is possible to make assumptions on the shape of the distribution function that simplify the model. We obtain in this way a family of fluid or reduced models.

Assuming that the distribution function has a Maxwellian shape, for instance, we obtain the MagnetoHydroDynamic (MHD) model. It is physically valid only in some parts of the tokamak (at the edges for instance). The fluid model is generally obtained from the hypothesis that the collisions between particles are strong.

But the reduction is not necessarily a consequence of collisional effects. Indeed, even without collisions, the plasma may still relax to an equilibrium state over sufficiently long time scales (Landau damping effect).

In the fluid or reduced-kinetic regions, the approximation of the distribution function could require fewer data while still achieving a good representation, even in the collisionless regime.

Therefore, a fluid or a reduced model is a model where the explicit dependency on the velocity variable is removed. In a more mathematical way, we consider that in some regions of the plasma, it is possible to exhibit a (preferably small) set of parameters $\alpha $ that allows us to describe the main properties of the plasma with a generalized "Maxwellian” $M$. Then

In this case it is sufficient to solve for $\alpha (x,t)$. Generally, the vector $\alpha $ is the solution of a first order hyperbolic system.

Another way to reduce the model is to try to find an abstract kinetic representation with an as small as possible set of kinetic velocities. The kinetic approach has then only a mathematical meaning. It allows solving very efficiently many equations of physics.

#### Numerical schemes

As previously indicated, an efficient method for solving the reduced models is the Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) approach. It is possible to make it of arbitrary order. It requires limiters when it is applied to nonlinear PDEs occurring for instance in fluid mechanics. But the reduced models that we intend to write are essentially linear. The nonlinearity is concentrated in a few coupling source terms.

In addition, this method, when written in a special set of variables, called the entropy variables, has nice properties concerning the entropy dissipation of the model. It opens the door to constructing numerical schemes with good conservation properties and no entropy dissipation, as already used for other systems of PDEs [32], [24], [30], [29].

#### Matrix-free implicit schemes

In tokamaks, the reduced model generally involves many time scales. Among these time scales, many of them, associated to the fastest waves, are not relevant. In order to filter them out, it is necessary to adopt implicit solvers in time. When the reduced model is based on a kinetic interpretation, it is possible to construct implicit schemes that do not impose solving costly linear systems. In addition the resulting solver is stable even at a very high CFL (Courant Friedrichs Lax) number.