Team, Visitors, External Collaborators
Overall Objectives
Research Program
Highlights of the Year
New Software and Platforms
New Results
Bilateral Contracts and Grants with Industry
Partnerships and Cooperations
XML PDF e-pub
PDF e-Pub

Section: New Results

A Weakly Supervised Learning Technique for Classifying Facial Expressions

Participants : S L Happy, Antitza Dantcheva, François Brémond.

The universal hypothesis suggests that the six basic emotions: anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and surprise, are being expressed by similar facial expressions by all humans. While existing datasets support the universal hypothesis and comprise of images and videos with discrete disjoint labels of profound emotions, real-life data contains jointly occurring emotions and expressions of different intensities. Models, which are trained using categorical one-hot vectors often over-fit and fail to recognize low or moderate expression intensities. Motivated by the above, as well as by the lack of sufficient annotated data, we propose a weakly supervised learning technique for expression classification, which leveraged the information of unannotated data. Crucial in our approach was that we first trained a convolutional neural network (CNN) with label smoothing in a supervised manner and proceeded to tune the CNN-weights with both labelled and unlabelled data simultaneously. Experiments on four datasets demonstrated large performance gains in cross-database performance, as well as showed that the proposed method achieved to learn different expression intensities, even when trained with categorical samples. This work was published in Pattern Recognition Letters [15].

Figure 13. Workflow of the proposed method for weakly supervised learning of facial expressions.