## Section: New Results

### Modelling the visual system

#### Uniqueness of viscosity mean curvature flow solution in two sub-Riemannian structures

Participants : Emre Baspinar, Giovanna Citti [University of Bologna, Italy] .

We provide a uniqueness result for a class of viscosity solutions to sub-Riemannian mean curvature flows. In a sub-Riemannian setting, uniqueness cannot be deduced by the comparison principle, which is known only for graphs and for radially symmetry surfaces. Here we use a definition of continuous viscosity solutions of sub-Riemannian mean curvature flows motivated from a regularized Riemannian approximation of the flow. With this definition, we prove that any continuous viscosity solution of the equation is a limit of a sequence of solutions of Riemannian flow and obtain as a consequence uniqueness and the comparison principle. The results are provided in the settings of both 3-dimensional rototranslation group $SE\left(2\right)$ and Carnot groups of step 2, which are particularly important due to their relation to the surface completion problem of a model of the visual cortex.

This work has been published in SIAM Journal on Mathematical Analysis and is available as [19].

#### A sub-Riemannian model of the visual cortex with frequency and phase

Participants : Emre Baspinar, Alessandro Sarti [CAMS, EHESS, Paris, France] , Giovanna Citti [University of Bologna, Italy] .

In this paper we present a novel model of the primary visual cortex (V1) based on orientation, frequency and phase selective behavior of the V1 simple cells. We start from the first level mechanisms of visual perception: receptive profiles. The model interprets V1 as a fiber bundle over the 2-dimensional retinal plane by introducing orientation, frequency and phase as intrinsic variables. Each receptive profile on the fiber is mathematically interpreted as a rotated, frequency modulated and phase shifted Gabor function. We start from the Gabor function and show that it induces in a natural way the model geometry and the associated horizontal connectivity modeling the neural connectivity patterns in V1. We provide an image enhancement algorithm employing the model framework. The algorithm is capable of exploiting not only orientation but also frequency and phase information existing intrinsically in a 2-dimensional input image. We provide the experimental results corresponding to the enhancement algorithm.

This work has been submitted for publication and is available as [39].