## Section: New Results

### Mathematics of wireless cellular networks

** 18.**** Performance
analysis of cellular networks with opportunistic scheduling using
queueing theory and stochastic
geometry** [6]
Combining stochastic geometric approach with some classical results from queuing theory, in this paper we propose a comprehensive framework for the performance study of large cellular networks featuring opportunistic scheduling. Rapid and verifiable with respect to real data, our approach is particularly useful for network dimensioning and long term economic planning. It is based on a detailed network model combining an information-theoretic representation of the link layer, a queuing-theoretic representation of the users' scheduler, and a stochastic-geometric representation of the signal propagation and the network cells. It allows one to evaluate principal characteristics of the individual cells, such as loads (defined as the fraction of time the cell is not empty), the mean number of served users in the steady state, and the user throughput. A simplified Gaussian approximate model is also proposed to facilitate study of the spatial distribution of these metrics across the network. The analysis of both models requires only simulations of the point process of base stations and the shadowing field to estimate the expectations of some stochastic-geometric functionals not admitting explicit expressions. A key observation of our approach , bridging spatial and temporal analysis, relates the SINR distribution of the typical user to the load of the typical cell of the network. The former is a static characteristic of the network related to its spectral efficiency while the latter characterizes the performance of the (generalized) processor sharing queue serving the dynamic population of users of this cell.

** 19.**** Two-tier
cellular networks for throughput maximization of static and mobile
users** [10]
In small cell networks, high mobility of users results in frequent handoff and thus severely restricts the data rate for mobile users. To alleviate this problem, we propose to use heterogeneous, two-tier network structure where static users are served by both macro and micro base stations, whereas the mobile (i.e., moving) users are served only by macro base stations having larger cells; the idea is to prevent frequent data outage for mobile users due to handoff. We use the classical two-tier Poisson network model with different transmit powers, assume independent Poisson process of static users and doubly stochastic Poisson process of mobile users moving at a constant speed along infinite straight lines generated by a Poisson line process. Using stochastic geometry, we calculate the average downlink data rate of the typical static and mobile (i.e., moving) users, the latter accounted for handoff outage periods. We consider also the average throughput of these two types of users defined as their average data rates divided by the mean total number of users co-served by the same base station. We find that if the density of a homogeneous network and/or the speed of mobile users is high, it is advantageous to let the mobile users connect only to some optimal fraction of BSs to reduce the frequency of handoffs during which the connection is not assured. If a heterogeneous structure of the network is allowed, one can further jointly optimize the mean throughput of mobile and static users by appropriately tuning the powers of micro and macro base stations subject to some aggregate power constraint ensuring unchanged mean data rates of static users via the network equivalence property.

** 20.**** Location Aware Opportunistic Bandwidth Sharing between Static and Mobile Users with Stochastic Learning in Cellular Networks** [9]
We consider location-dependent opportunistic bandwidth sharing between
static and mobile downlink users in a cellular network. Each cell has
some fixed number of static users. Mobile users enter the cell, move
inside the cell for some time and then leave the cell. In order to
provide higher data rate to mobile users, we propose to provide higher
bandwidth to the mobile users at favourable times and locations, and
provide higher bandwidth to the static users in other times. We
formulate the problem as a long run average reward Markov decision
process (MDP) where the per-step reward is a linear combination of
instantaneous data volumes received by static and mobile users, and
find the optimal policy. The transition structure of this MDP is not
known in general. To alleviate this issue, we propose a learning
algorithm based on single timescale stochastic approximation. Also,
noting that the unconstrained MDP can be used to solve a constrained
problem, we provide a learning algorithm based on multi-timescale
stochastic approximation. The results are extended to address the
issue of fair bandwidth sharing between the two classes of
users. Numerical results demonstrate performance improvement by our
scheme, and also the trade-off between performance gain and fairness.

** 21.**** Per-Link Reliability and Rate Control: Two Facets of the SIR Meta Distribution** [13]
The meta distribution (MD) of the signal-to-interference ratio (SIR) provides fine-grained reliability performance in wireless networks modeled by point processes. In particular, for an ergodic point process, the SIR MD yields the distribution of the per-link reliability for a target SIR. Here we reveal that the SIR MD has a second important application, which is rate control. Specifically, we calculate the distribution of the SIR threshold (equivalently, the distribution of the transmission rate) that guarantees each link a target reliability and show its connection to the distribution of the per-link reliability. This connection also permits an approximate calculation of the SIR MD when only partial (local) information about the underlying point process is available.

** 22.**** Simple Approximations of the SIR Meta Distribution in General Cellular Networks** [14]
Compared to the standard success (coverage) probability , the meta distribution of the signal-to-interference ratio (SIR) provides much more fine-grained information about the network performance. We consider general heterogeneous cellular networks (HCNs) with base station tiers modeled by arbitrary stationary and ergodic non-Poisson point processes. The exact analysis of non-Poisson network models is notoriously difficult, even in terms of the standard success probability, let alone the meta distribution. Hence we propose a simple approach to approximate the SIR meta distribution for non-Poisson networks based on the ASAPPP ("approximate SIR analysis based on the Poisson point process") method. We prove that the asymptotic horizontal gap ${G}_{0}$ between its standard success probability and that for the Poisson point process exactly characterizes the gap between the $b\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}$th moment of the conditional success probability, as the SIR threshold goes to 0. The gap ${G}_{0}$ allows two simple approximations of the meta distribution for general HCNs: 1) the per-tier approximation by applying the shift ${G}_{0}$ to each tier and 2) the effective gain approximation by directly shifting the meta distribution for the homogeneous independent Poisson network. Given the generality of the model considered and the fine-grained nature of the meta distribution, these approximations work surprisingly well.

** 23.**** Interference Queueing Networks** [16]
This work features networks of coupled processor sharing queues in the Euclidean space, where customers arrive according to independent Poisson point processes at every queue, are served, and then leave the network. The coupling is through service rates. In any given queue, this rate is inversely proportional the interference seen by this queue, which is determined by the load in neighboring queues, attenuated by some distance-based path-loss function. The main focus is on the infinite grid network and translation invariant path-loss case. The model is a discrete version of a spatial birth and death process where customers arrive to the Euclidean space according to Poisson rain and leave it when they have transferred an exponential file, assuming that the instantaneous rate of each transfer is determined through information theory by the signal to interference and noise ratio experienced by the user. The stability condition is identified. The minimal stationary regime is built using coupling from the past techniques. The mean queue size of this minimal stationary regime is determined in closed form using the rate conservation principle of Palm calculus. When the stability condition holds, for all bounded initial conditions, there is weak convergence to this minimal stationary regime; however, there exist translation invariant initial conditions for which all queue sizes converge to infinity.

** 24.**** Statistical learning of geometric characteristics of wireless networks** [19]
Motivated by the prediction of cell loads in cellular networks, we formulate the following new, fundamental problem of statistical learning of geometric marks of point processes: An unknown marking function, depending on the geometry of point patterns, produces characteristics (marks) of the points. One aims at learning this function from the examples of marked point patterns in order to predict the marks of new point patterns. To approximate (interpolate) the marking function, in our baseline approach, we build a statistical regression model of the marks with respect some local point distance representation. In a more advanced approach, we use a global data representation via the scattering moments of random measures, which build informative and stable to deformations data representation, already proven useful in image analysis and related application domains. In this case, the regression of the scattering moments of the marked point patterns with respect to the non-marked ones is combined with the numerical solution of the inverse problem, where the marks are recovered from the estimated scattering moments. Considering some simple, generic marks, often appearing in the modeling of wireless networks, such as the shot-noise values, nearest neighbour distance, and some characteristics of the Voronoi cells, we show that the scattering moments can capture similar geometry information as the baseline approach, and can reach even better performance, especially for non-local marking functions. Our results motivate further development of statistical learning tools for stochastic geometry and analysis of wireless networks, in particular to predict cell loads in cellular networks from the locations of base stations and traffic demand.

** 25.**** Determinantal
thinning of point processes with network learning
applications** [21]
A new type of dependent thinning for point processes in continuous space is proposed, which leverages the advantages of determinantal point processes defined on finite spaces and, as such, is particularly amenable to statistical, numerical, and simulation techniques. It gives a new point process that can serve as a network model exhibiting repulsion. The properties and functions of the new point process, such as moment measures, the Laplace functional, the void probabilities, as well as conditional (Palm) characteristics can be estimated accurately by simulating the underlying (non-thinned) point process, which can be taken, for example, to be Poisson. This is in contrast (and preference to) finite Gibbs point processes, which, instead of thinning, require weighting the Poisson realizations, involving usually intractable normalizing constants. Models based on determinantal point processes are also well suited for statistical (supervised) learning techniques, allowing the models to be fitted to observed network patterns with some particular geometric properties. We illustrate this approach by imitating with determinantal thinning the well-known Matérn II hard-core thinning, as well as a soft-core thinning depending on nearest-neighbour triangles. These two examples demonstrate how the proposed approach can lead to new, statistically optimized, probabilistic transmission scheduling schemes.

** 26.**** Analyzing LoRa
long-range, low-power, wide-area networks using stochastic
geometry** [22]
In this paper we present a simple, stochastic-geometric model of a wireless access network exploiting the LoRA (Long Range) protocol, which is a non-expensive technology allowing for long-range, single-hop connectivity for the Internet of Things. We assume a space-time Poisson model of packets transmitted by LoRA nodes to a fixed base station. Following previous studies of the impact of interference, we assume that a given packet is successfully received when no interfering packet arrives with similar power before the given packet payload phase. This is as a consequence of LoRa using different transmission rates for different link budgets (transmissions with smaller received powers use larger spreading factors) and LoRa intra-technology interference treatment. Using our model, we study the scaling of the packet reception probabilities per link budget as a function of the spatial density of nodes and their rate of transmissions. We consider both the parameter values recommended by the LoRa provider, as well as proposing LoRa tuning to improve the equality of performance for all link budgets. We also consider spatially non-homogeneous distributions of LoRa nodes. We show also how a fair comparison to non-slotted Aloha can be made within the same framework.

** 27.**** Reliability and Local
Delay in Wireless Networks: Does Bandwidth Partitioning
Help?** [33]
In a series of papers initiated through a collaboration with Nokia Bell Labs, we study the effect of bandwidth partitioning (BWP) on the reliability and delay performance in infrastructureless wireless networks. The reliability performance is characterized by the density of concurrent transmissions that satisfy a certain reliability (outage) constraint and the delay performance by so-called local delay, defined as the average number of time slots required to successfully transmit a packet. We concentrate on the ultrareliable regime where the target outage probability is close to 0. BWP has two conflicting effects: while the interference is reduced as the concurrent transmissions are divided over multiple frequency bands, the signal-to-interference ratio (SIR) requirement is increased due to smaller allocated bandwidth if the data rate is to be kept constant. Instead, if the SIR requirement is to be kept the same, BWP reduces the data rate and in turn increases the local delay. For these two approaches with adaptive and fixed SIR requirements, we derive closed-form expressions of the local delay and the maximum density of reliable transmissions in the ultrareliable regime. Our analysis shows that, in the ultrareliable regime, BWP leads to the reliability-delay tradeoff.

** 28.**** The Influence of Canyon
Shadowing on Device-to-Device Connectivity in Urban
Scenario** [35]
In this work, we use percolation theory to study the feasibility of large-scale connectivity of relay-augmented device-to-device (D2D) networks in an urban scenario, featuring a haphazard system of streets and canyon shadowing allowing only for line-of-sight (LOS) communications in a limited finite range. We use a homogeneous Poisson-Voronoi tessellation (PVT) model of streets with homogeneous Poisson users (devices) on its edges and independent Bernoulli relays on the vertices. Using this model, we demonstrated the existence of a minimal threshold for relays below which large-scale connectivity of the network is not possible, regardless of all other network parameters. Through simulations, we estimated this threshold to 71.3%. Moreover, if the mean street length is not larger than some threshold (predicted to 74.3% of the communication range; which might be the case in a typical urban scenario) then any (whatever small) density of users can be compensated by equipping more crossroads with relays. Above this latter threshold, good connectivity requires some minimal density of users, compensated by the relays in a way we make explicit. The existence of the above regimes brings interesting qualitative arguments to the discussion on the possible D2D deployment scenarios.

** 29.**** Relay-assisted Device-to-Device Networks: Connectivity and Uberization Opportunities** [46]
It has been shown that deploying device-to-device (D2D) networks in urban environments requires equipping a considerable proportion of crossroads with relays. This represents a necessary economic investment for an operator. In this work, we tackle the problem of the economic feasibility of such relay-assisted D2D networks. First, we propose a stochastic model taking into account a positive surface for streets and crossroads, thus allowing for a more realistic estimation of the minimal number of needed relays. Secondly, we introduce a cost model for the deployment of relays, allowing one to study operators' D2D deployment strategies. We investigate the example of an uberizing neo-operator willing to set up a network entirely relying on D2D and show that a return on the initial investment in relays is possible in a realistic period of time, even if the network is funded by a very low revenue per D2D user. Our results bring quantitative arguments to the discussion on possible uberization scenarios of telecommunications networks.

** 30.**** Continuum Line-of-Sight
Percolation on Poisson-Voronoi
Tessellations** [45]
In this work, we study a new model for continuum line-of-sight percolation in a random environment given by a Poisson-Voronoi tessellation. The edges of this tessellation are the support of a Cox point process, while the vertices are the support of a Bernoulli point process. Taking the superposition of these two processes, two points of are linked by an edge if and only if they are sufficiently close and located on the same edge of the supporting tessellation. We study the percolation of the random graph arising from this construction and prove that a subcritical phase as well as a supercritical phase exist under general assumptions. Our proofs are based on a renormalization argument with some notion of stabilization and asymptotic essential connectedness to investigate continuum percolation for Cox point processes. We also give numerical estimates of the critical parameters of the model. Our model can be seen as a good candidate for modelling telecommunications networks in a random environment with obstructive conditions for signal propagation.