Team, Visitors, External Collaborators
Overall Objectives
Research Program
Application Domains
Highlights of the Year
New Software and Platforms
New Results
Partnerships and Cooperations
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Section: New Results

Unveiling brain activity using M/EEG

Fast Approximation of EEG Forward Problem and Application to Tissue Conductivity Estimation

Participants : Kostiantyn Maksymenko, Maureen Clerc, Théodore Papadopoulo.

Bioelectric source analysis in the human brain from scalp electroencephalography (EEG) signals is sensitive to the conductivity of the different head tissues. Conductivity values are subject dependent, so non-invasive methods for conductivity estimation are necessary to fine tune the EEG models. To do so, the EEG forward problem solution (so-called lead field matrix) must be computed for a large number of conductivity configurations. Computing one lead field requires a matrix inversion which is computationally intensive for realistic head models. Thus, the required time for computing a large number of lead fields can become impractical. In this work, we propose to approximate the lead field matrix for a set of conductivity configurations, using the exact solution only for a small set of basis points in the conductivity space. Our approach accelerates the computing time, while controlling the approximation error. Our method is tested for brain and skull conductivity estimation , with simulated and measured EEG data, corresponding to evoked somato-sensory potentials. This test demonstrates that the used approximation does not introduce any bias and runs significantly faster than if exact lead field were to be computed.

This work has been published in [15].

Data-driven cortical clustering to provide a family of plausible solutions to the M/EEG inverse problem

Participants : Maureen Clerc, Kostiantyn Maksymenko, Théodore Papadopoulo.

The Magneto/Electroencephalography (M/EEG) inverse problem consists in reconstructing cortical activity from M/EEG measurements. It is an ill-posed problem. Hence prior hypotheses are needed to constrain the solution space. In this work, we consider that the brain activity which generates the M/EEG signals is supported by single or multiple connected cortical regions. As opposed to methods based on convex optimization, which are forced to select one possible solution, we propose a cortical clustering based approach, which is able to find several candidate regions. These regions are different in term of their sizes and/or positions but fit the data with similar accuracy. We first show that even under the hypothesis of a single active region, several source configurations can similarly explain the data. We then use a multiple signal classification (MUSIC) approach to recover multiple active regions with our method. We validate our method on simulated and measured MEG data. Our results show that our method provides a family of plausible solutions which both accord with the priors and similarly fit the measurements.

This work has been published in [8].

Convolutional autoencoder for waveform learning

Participants : Sara Sedlar, Maureen Clerc, Rachid Deriche, Théodore Papadopoulo.

Electro- or Magneto-encephalographic (M/EEG) signals measured on the scalp can be modeled as a linear combination of source signals occurring in different cortical regions. Analysis of specific recurrent waveforms from measurements can help in the evaluation of several neurological disorders such as epilepsy, Alzheimer's disease, and narcolepsy. In addition, detection of the neural events evoked by certain stimuli is crucial for brain-computer interfaces. Such M/EEG signals are quite faint and inherently affected by an important noise, generated by irrelevant brain activities, by other organs, by external ambient noise or imperfections of the measuring devices. In addition, there are intra- and inter-subject variabilities, meaning that the relevant waveforms vary in terms of amplitudes, shapes, and time delays. This makes waveform learning on such signals a quite complex task. In order to address these problems, a number of dictionary (here waveforms) learning based approaches has been proposed. The common framework behind those approaches is an alternative estimation of data-driven waveforms and their corresponding activations in terms of amplitudes and positions over time. Motivated by the success of these methods and the advances in deep learning, we propose a method based on a convolutional auto-encoder that aims at improving more traditional approaches. Auto-encoders are unsupervised neural network models that have been successfully used for data compression, feature learning, denoising and clustering. Auto-encoders are composed of an encoder which creates a code also known as bottle-neck and decoder that is supposed to reconstruct input signal given the code. By penalizing reconstruction loss function with certain constraints we can guide the auto-encoder to perform compression, denoising, clustering etc. For the moment, the properties of the model are investigated on single-channel synthetic data imitating three types of neurological activities (spikes, short oscillatory and low frequency saw-tooth waveforms) mixed using a realistic leadfield matrix (source space to sensor space transform).

This work is in current progress.

Automatic detection of epileptic seizures by video-EEG

Participants : Mamoudou Sano, Hugo Cadis [IPMC] , Fabrice Duprat [IPMC] , Massimo Mantegazza [IPMC] , Maureen Clerc, Théodore Papadopoulo.

Epilepsy is a serious condition that affects almost 50 million people worldwide. Despite several generations of antiepileptic treatments, the rate of drug-resistant patients remains around 30% and the discovery of new pharmacological targets is therefore a crucial issue.

In order to find pharmacological targets, several animal models make it possible to study the mechanisms of establishment of epileptic disease, or epileptogenesis, and the consequences of repeated spontaneous attacks which characterize epilepsy. Recording an electroencephalogram (EEG) remains the best way to understand these mechanisms. However, the placement of electrodes on small animals such as mice is difficult or even impossible depending on the age of the animal or other used protocols. The use of video recordings over several days, weeks or months makes it possible to observe the animals with a minimum of disturbances and to assess the severity of the crises on a behavioral scale. In both cases, the visual analysis of hundreds of hours of video and/or EEG recordings is very long and error-prone.

The goal of this joint IPMC , Athena work was to improve acquisition techniques and develop software tools to automate both EEG and video analysis. EEG analysis was based on the "Adaptive Waveform Learning" that was developed in the group a few years ago  [61]. This is work in progress.