Section: New Results
Automated and Interactive Theorem Proving
Participants : Jasmin Christian Blanchette, Martin Bromberger, Daniel El Ouraoui, Mathias Fleury, Pascal Fontaine, Stephan Merz, HansJörg Schurr, Sorin Stratulat, Thomas Sturm, Andreas Teucke, Sophie Tourret, Marco Voigt, Uwe Waldmann, Christoph Weidenbach.
Extension of the Superposition Calculus with $\lambda $free HigherOrder Terms and (Co)datatypes
Joint work with Alexander Bentkamp (VU Amsterdam), Simon Cruanes (Aesthetic Integration), Nicolas Peltier (IMAG Grenoble), and Simon Robillard (Chalmers Gothenburg).
Superposition is a highly successful calculus for reasoning about firstorder logic with equality. As a stepping stone towards extending the calculus to full higherorder logic, Bentkamp et al. [19] designed a graceful generalization of the calculus to a fragment devoid of $\lambda $abstractions, but with partial application and application of variables, two crucial higherorder features. This builds on the work on term orders, namely the recursive path order [57] and the KnuthBendix order [55]. We implemented the calculi in Simon Cruanes's Zipperposition prover and evaluated them on TPTP benchmarks. The performance is substantially better than with the traditional, encodingbased approach. The new superpositionlike calculus serves as a stepping stone towards complete, efficient automatic theorem provers for full higherorder logic.
Another extension of superposition, by Blanchette et al. [21], concerns the native support for inductive and coinductive datatypes. The ability to reason about datatypes has many applications in program verification, formalization of the metatheory of programming languages, and even formalization of mathematics.
Both lines of work aim at bridging the gap between automatic and interactive theorem provers, by increasing the expressiveness and efficiency of bestofbreed automatic firstorder provers based on the superposition calculus.
IsaFoL: Isabelle Formalization of Logic
Joint work with Alexander Bentkamp (VU Amsterdam), Andreas Halkjær From (DTU Copenhagen), Alexander Birch Jensen (DTU Copenhagen), Peter Lammich (TU München), John Bruntse Larsen (DTU Copenhagen), Julius Michaelis (TU München), Tobias Nipkow (TU München), Nicolas Peltier (IMAG Grenoble), Simon Robillard (Chalmers Gothenburg), Anders Schlichtkrull (DTU Copenhagen), Dmitriy Traytel (ETH Zürich), Jørgen Villadsen (DTU Copenhagen), and Petar Vukmirović (VU Amsterdam).
Researchers in automated reasoning spend a significant portion of their work time specifying logical calculi and proving metatheorems about them. These proofs are typically carried out with pen and paper, which is errorprone and can be tedious. As proof assistants are becoming easier to use, it makes sense to employ them.
In this spirit, we started an effort, called IsaFoL (Isabelle Formalization of Logic), that aims at developing libraries and methodology for formalizing modern research in the field, using the Isabelle/HOL proof assistant.(https://bitbucket.org/isafol/isafol/wiki/Home) Our initial emphasis is on established results about propositional and firstorder logic.
The main result this year has been a formalization of a large part of Bachmair and Ganzinger's chapter on resolution theorem proving in the Handbook of Automated Reasoning, by Anders Schlichtkrull et al. The work was conducted by Schlichtkrull largely during a visit at the MPI in Saarbrücken and was published at IJCAR 2018 [34]. The following quote of one of the reviews nicely sums up the objective of the project:
The authors convinced me that their development is a great tool for exploring/developing calculus extensions. It will enable us to “extend/hack without fear.”
A followup paper [33], also by Schlichtkrull et al., has been accepted at CPP 2019. In this work, a chain of refinement leads to a verified executable prover.
The IsaFoL repository has welcome several further additions in 2018, and there is largely finished work, which we expect will lead to at least two publications in 2019:

After the journal publication [13] following up on an IJCAR 2016 paper and a publication at CPP 2018 [23], Fleury has improved his verified SAT solver IsaSAT further by implementing four optimizations: restarts, forgetting, blocking literals, and machine integers. IsaSAT is now by far the most efficient verified SAT solver, and it is catching up with MiniSat, a reference (but unverified) SAT solver implementation.

Sophie Tourret and Simon Robillard have formalized a new framework, designed primarily by Uwe Waldmann, that captures abstractly the lifting from completeness of a calculus for propositional logic to a firstorder prover. This will yield a simpler proof of Bachmair and Ganzinger's completeness theorem and will be reusable for reasoning about other provers (e.g., superposition provers), whether with pen and paper or in Isabelle.
Jasmin Blanchette briefly describes this ongoing research in an invited paper [20], which he will present at CPP 2019.
Subtropical Reasoning for Real Inequalities
Joint work with Hoon Hong (North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC).
We consider systems of strict multivariate polynomial inequalities over the reals. All polynomial coefficients are parameters ranging over the reals, where for each coefficient we prescribe its sign. We are interested in the existence of positive real solutions of our system for all choices of coefficients subject to our sign conditions. We give a decision procedure for the existence of such solutions. In the positive case our procedure yields a parametric positive solution as a rational function in the coefficients. Our framework allows heuristic subtropical approaches to be reformulated for nonparametric systems of polynomial inequalities. Such systems have been recently used in qualitative biological network analysis and, independently, in satisfiability modulo theory solving. We apply our results to characterize the incompleteness of those methods.
The approach allows SMT solving for nonlinear real arithmetic to be heuristically reduced to linear real arithmetic, to which, e.g., methods from 7.1.4 are applicable. In the special case of single inequalities one can even reduce to linear programming. [25]. This has been successfully applied to heuristic search for Hopf bifurcation fixed points in chemical and biological network analysis.
Reasoning in Linear Arithmetic
We have continued our work on reasoning in linear integer (LIA), linear real (LRA) and linear mixed arithmetic (LIRA). Whereas the standard branchandbound techniques [63] for LIA typically work well for bounded systems of inequations, they often diverge on unbounded systems. We already proposed cube techniques for this case. They comprise efficiently computable sufficient tests for the existence of a solution [58]. However, these tests are only necessary for the existence of a solution in the case of a system that is unbounded in all directions. For the case of partially unbounded systems, our combination of the MixedEchelonHermite transformation and the DoubleBounded Reduction for systems of linear mixed arithmetic preserve satisfiability, can be computed in polynomial time, and turn any LIRA system into a bounded system [22]. Existing approaches for LIRA, e.g., branchandbound and cuts from proofs, only explore a finite search space after the application of our two transformations. The transformations orient themselves on the structure of an input system instead of computing a priori (over)approximations out of the available constants. We also developed a polynomial method for converting certificates of (un)satisfiability from the transformed to the original system.
Meanwhile our techniques have been integrated into the SMT solver veriT, but also in other SMT solvers such as Z3 [72] or MathSAT [62]. They have been substantial for our success at SMTComp2018.
Combination of Satisfiability Procedures
Joint work with Christophe Ringeissen (Inria Nancy – Grand Est, Pesto) and Paula Chocron (IIIACSIC, Bellaterra, Spain).
A satisfiability problem is often expressed in a combination of theories, and a natural approach consists in solving the problem by combining the satisfiability procedures available for the component theories. This is the purpose of the combination method introduced by Nelson and Oppen. However, in its initial presentation, the NelsonOppen combination method requires the theories to be signaturedisjoint and stably infinite. The design of a generic combination method for nondisjoint unions of theories is difficult, but it is worth exploring simple nondisjoint combinations that appear frequently in verification. An example is the case of shared sets, where sets are represented by unary predicates. Another example is the case of bridging functions between data structures and a target theory (e.g., a fragment of arithmetic).
In 2015, we defined a sound and complete combination procedure à la NelsonOppen for the theory of absolutely free data structures (including lists and trees) connected to another theory via bridging functions [60]. This combination procedure has also been refined for standard interpretations. The resulting theory has a nice politeness property, enabling combinations with arbitrary decidable theories of elements. We also investigated other theories [61] amenable to similar combinations: this class includes the theory of equality, the theory of absolutely free data structures, and all the theories in between.
In 2018, we have been improving the framework and unified both results. A paper is under review.
Quantifier Handling in SMT
Joint work with Andrew J. Reynolds (Univ. of Iowa, USA) and Cezary Kaliszyk (Univ. of Innsbruck).
SMT solvers generally rely on various instantiation techniques for handling quantifiers. We built a unifying framework encompassing quantified formulas with equality and uninterpreted functions, such that the major instantiation techniques in SMT solving can be cast in that framework. It is based on the problem of Eground (dis)unification, a variation of the classic Rigid Eunification problem. We introduced a sound and complete calculus to solve this problem in practice: Congruence Closure with Free Variables (CCFV). Experimental evaluations of implementations of CCFV demonstrate notable improvements in the stateoftheart solver CVC4 and make the solver veriT competitive with stateoftheart solvers for several benchmark libraries, in particular those originating in verification problems. This was the subject of a publication in 2017 [53]. In a publication at TACAS 2018 [31], we revisit enumerative instantiation for SMT.
We are currently investigating machine learning techniques as a tool for filtering instantiations. Other ongoing work aims at lifting the above techniques to higherorder reasoning.
Real Quantifier Elimination, Decision, and Satisfiability and Their Applications
Effective quantifier elimination procedures for firstorder theories provide a powerful tool for generically solving a wide range of problems based on logical specifications. In contrast to general firstorder provers, quantifier elimination procedures are based on a fixed set of admissible logical symbols with an implicitly fixed semantics. This admits the use of subalgorithms from symbolic computation. Specifically quantifier elimination for the reals has been successfully applied in geometry, verification, and the life sciences.
A survey paper with an invited talk at ISSAC 2018 provides a coherent view on the scientific developments of the virtual substitution method for real quantifier elimination during the past three decades [17]. Another recent survey paper had illustrated relevant applications of that method [71].
NonLinear Arithmetic in SMT
Joint work with M. Ogawa and X. T. Vu (Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology), V. K. To (University of Engineering and Technology, VNU, Hanoi, Vietnam).
In the context of the SC${}^{2}$ project (cf. sections 8.1 and 8.3), we study the theory, design techniques, and implement software to push forward the nonlinear arithmetic (NLA) reasoning capabilities in SMT. Previously, we designed a framework to combine interval constraint propagation with other decision procedures for NLA, with promising results, notably in the international competition of SMT solvers. We also studied integration of these procedures into combinations of theories. These ideas were validated through an implementation within the veriT solver, together with code from the raSAT solver (from JAIST), and they were presented at the SC${}^{2}$ workshop 2018 [24].
Proofs for SMT
We have previously developed a framework for processing formulas in automatic theorem provers, with generation of detailed proofs. The main components are a generic contextual recursion algorithm and an extensible set of inference rules. Clausification, skolemization, theoryspecific simplifications, and expansion of `let' expressions are instances of this framework. With suitable data structures, proof generation adds only a lineartime overhead, and proofs can be checked in linear time. We implemented the approach in the SMT solver veriT. This allowed us to dramatically simplify the code base while increasing the number of problems for which detailed proofs can be produced, which is important for independent checking and reconstruction in proof assistants. This was the subject of a conference publication in 2017. In 2018, we polished the approach, fully implementing proof reconstruction of veriT proofs in Isabelle. A paper has been accepted in the Journal of Automated Reasoning.
A More Efficient Technique for Validating Cyclic PreProofs
Cyclic preproofs can be represented as sets of finite tree derivations with backlinks. In a setting of firstorder logic with inductive definitions, the nodes of the tree derivations are labelled by sequents and the backlinks connect particular terminal nodes, referred to as buds, to other nodes labelled by the same sequent. However, only some backlinks can constitute sound preproofs. Previously, it was shown that special ordering and derivability conditions, defined along the minimal cycles of the digraph representing a particular normal form of the cyclic preproof, are sufficient for validating the backlinks. In that approach, a single constraint could be checked several times when processing different minimal cycles, hence one may require additional recording mechanisms to avoid redundant computation in order to achieve polynomial time complexity.
In [39], we presented a new approach that does not need to process minimal cycles. It is based on a normal form in which the validation conditions are defined by taking into account only the rootbud paths from the nonsingleton strongly connected components of its digraph.
Mechanical Synthesis of Algorithms by Logical and Combinatorial Techniques
Joint work with Isabela Dramnesc (West University, Timisoara, Romania) and Tudor Jebelean (RISC, Johannes Kepler University, Linz, Austria).
In [14], we developed logical and combinatorial methods for automating the generation of sorting algorithms for binary trees, starting from inputoutput specifications and producing conditional rewrite rules. The main approach consists in proving (constructively) the existence of an appropriate output from every input. The proof may fail if some necessary subalgorithms are lacking. Then, their specifications are suggested and their synthesis is performed by the same principles.
The main goal is to avoid the possibly prohibitive cost of pure resolution proofs by using a naturalstyle proving in which domainspecific strategies and inference steps lead to a significant increase of efficiency. We introduce novel techniques and combine them with classical techniques for naturaldeduction style proving, as well as methods based on the properties of domainspecific relations and functions. In particular, we use combinatorial techniques in order to generate possible witnesses, which in certain cases lead to the discovery of new induction principles. From the proof, the algorithm is extracted by transforming inductive proof steps into recursions, and casebased proof steps into conditionals.
The approach was demonstrated using the Theorema system for developing the theory, implementing the prover, and performing the proofs of the necessary properties and synthesis conjectures. It was also validated in the Coq system, allowing us to compare the facilities of the two systems in view of our application.
Formal Proofs of Tarjan's Algorithm
Joint work with Ran Chen (Chinese Academy of Sciences), Cyril Cohen and Laurent Théry (Inria Sophia Antipolis Méditerranée, Marelle), and JeanJacques Lévy (Inria Paris, Pi.r2).
We compare formal proofs of Tarjan's algorithm for computing strongly connected components in a graph in three different proof assistants: Coq, Isabelle/HOL, and Why3. Our proofs are based on a representation of the algorithm as a functional program (rather than its more conventional imperative representation), which was verified in Why3 by Chen and Lévy [59]. The proofs in all three assistants are thus closely comparable and in particular employ the same invariants. This lets us focus on different formalizations due to idiosyncracies of the proof assistants, such as w.r.t. handling mutually recursive function definitions whose termination is not obvious according to syntactic criteria, and compare the degree of automation in the three assistants. A report is available on arXiv [45].