Application Domains
New Software and Platforms
Bilateral Contracts and Grants with Industry
Partnerships and Cooperations
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## Section: New Results

### Reconfigurable Architecture Design

#### Algorithmic Fault Tolerance for Timing Speculative Hardware

Participants : Thibaut Marty, Tomofumi Yuki, Steven Derrien.

#### Adaptive Dynamic Compilation for Low-Power Embedded Systems

Participants : Steven Derrien, Simon Rokicki.

Single ISA-Heterogeneous multi-cores such as the ARM big.LITTLE have proven to be an attractive solution to explore different energy/performance trade-offs. Such architectures combine Out of Order cores with smaller in-order ones to offer different power/energy profiles. They however do not really exploit the characteristics of workloads (compute-intensive vs. control dominated). In this work, we propose to enrich these architectures with VLIW cores, which are very efficient at compute-intensive kernels. To preserve the single ISA programming model, we resort to Dynamic Binary Translation as used in Transmeta Crusoe and NVidia Denver processors. Our proposed DBT framework targets the RISC-V ISA, for which both OoO and in-order implementations exist. Since DBT operates at runtime, its execution time is directly perceptible by the user, hence severely constrained. As a matter of fact, this overhead has often been reported to have a huge impact on actual performance, and is considered as being the main weakness of DBT based solutions. This is particularly true when targeting a VLIW processor: the quality of the generated code depends on efficient scheduling; unfortunately scheduling is known to be the most time-consuming component of a JIT compiler or DBT. Improving the responsiveness of such DBT systems is therefore a key research challenge. This is however made very difficult by the lack of open research tools or platform to experiment with such platforms. To address these issues, we have developed an open hardware/software platform supporting DBT. The platform was designed using HLS tools and validated on a FPGA board. The DBT uses RISC-V as host ISA, and can be retargeted to different VLIW configurations. Our platform uses custom hardware accelerators to improve the reactivity of our optimizing DBT flow. Our results [43], [27] show that, compared to a software implementation, our approach offers speed-up by 8$×$ while consuming 18$×$ less energy. We have also shown how our approach can be used to support runtime configurable VLIW cores. Such cores enable fine grain exploration of energy/performance trade-off by dynamically adjusting their number of execution slots, their register file size, etc. Our first experimental results have shown that this approach leads to best-case performance and energy efficiency when compared against static VLIW configurations [42].

#### Hardware Accelerated Simulation of Heterogeneous Platforms

Participants : Minh Thanh Cong, François Charot, Steven Derrien.

When considering designing heterogeneous multi-core platforms, the number of possible design combinations leads to a huge design space, with subtle trade-offs and design interactions. To reason about what design is best for a given target application requires detailed simulation of many different possible solutions. Simulation frameworks exist (such as gem5) and are commonly used to carry out these simulations. Unfortunately, these are purely software-based approaches and they do not allow a real exploration of the design space. Moreover, they do not really support highly heterogeneous multi-core architectures. These limitations motivate the study of the use of hardware to accelerate the simulation, and in particular of FPGA components. In this context, we are currently investigating the possibility of building hardware accelerated simulators of heterogeneous multicore architectures using the HAsim/LEAP infrastructure. Two aspects are currently under development. The first one concerns the deployment of simulator models on the hybrid Xeon CPU-Arria 10 FPGA Intel platforms. The second one concerns the definition of simulation models of hardware accelerators. The core processor brick is a RISCV core.

#### Dynamic Fault-Tolerant Scheduling onto Multi-Core Systems

Participants : Emmanuel Casseau, Petr Dobias.

Demand on multi-processor systems for high performance and low energy consumption still increases in order to satisfy our requirements to perform more and more complex computations. Moreover, the transistor size gets smaller and their operating voltage is lower, which goes hand in glove with higher susceptibility to system failure. In order to ensure system functionality, it is necessary to conceive fault-tolerant systems. Temporal and/or spatial redundancy is currently used to tackle this issue. Actually, multi-processor platforms can be less vulnerable when one processor is faulty because other processors can take over its scheduled tasks. In this context, we investigate how to dynamically map and schedule tasks onto homogeneous faulty processors. We developed several run-time algorithms based on the primary/backup approach which is commonly used for its minimal resources utilization and high reliability [31], [30]. The aim of our work was to reduce the complexity of the algorithm in order to target real-time embedded systems without sacrificing reliability. This work is done in collaboration with Oliver Sinnen, PARC Lab., the University of Auckland.

#### Run-Time Management on Multicore Platforms

Participant : Angeliki Kritikakou.

In real-time mixed-critical systems, Worst-Case Execution Time analysis (WCET) is required to guarantee that timing constraints are respected at least for high criticality tasks. However, the WCET is pessimistic compared to the real execution time, especially for multicore platforms. As WCET computation considers the worst-case scenario, it means that whenever a high criticality task accesses a shared resource in multi-core platforms, it is considered that all cores use the same resource concurrently. This pessimism in WCET computation leads to a dramatic under utilization of the platform resources, or even failing to meet the timing constraints. In order to increase resource utilization while guaranteeing real-time guarantees for high criticality tasks, previous works proposed a run-time control system to monitor and decide when the interferences from low criticality tasks cannot be further tolerated. However, in the initial approaches, the points where the controller is executed were statically predefined. We propose a dynamic run-time control in [21] which adapts its observations to on-line temporal properties, increasing further the dynamism of the approach, and mitigating the unnecessary overhead implied by existing static approaches. Our dynamic adaptive approach allows to control the ongoing execution of tasks based on run-time information, and increases further the gains in terms of resource utilization compared with static approaches.

#### Energy Constrained and Real-Time Scheduling and Assignment on Multicores

Participants : Olivier Sentieys, Angeliki Kritikakou, Lei Mo.

#### Real-Time Energy-Constrained Scheduling in Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks

Participants : Angeliki Kritikakou, Lei Mo.

Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks (WSANs) are emerging as a new generation of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). Due to the coupling between the sensing areas of the sensors and the action areas of the actuators, the efficient coordination among the nodes is a great challenge. In our work in [23] we address the problem of distributed node coordination in WSANs aiming at meeting the user's requirements on the states of the Points of Interest (POIs) in a real-time and energy-efficient manner. The node coordination problem is formulated as a non-linear program. To solve it efficiently, the problem is divided into two correlated subproblems: the Sensor-Actuator (S-A) coordination and the Actuator-Actuator (A-A) coordination. In the S-A coordination, a distributed federated Kalman filter-based estimation approach is applied for the actuators to collaborate with their ambient sensors to estimate the states of the POIs. In the A-A coordination, a distributed Lagrange-based control method is designed for the actuators to optimally adjust their outputs, based on the estimated results from the S-A coordination. The convergence of the proposed method is proved rigorously. As the proposed node coordination scheme is distributed, we find the optimal solution while avoiding high computational complexity. The simulation results also show that the proposed distributed approach is an efficient and practically applicable method with reasonable complexity. In addition, the design of fast and effective coordination among sensors and actuators in Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) is a fundamental, but challenging issue, especially when the system model is a priori unknown and multiple random events can simultaneously occur. In [37], we propose a novel collaborative state estimation and actuator scheduling algorithm with two phases. In the first phase, we propose a Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM)-based method using the random event physical field distribution to estimate the locations and the states of events. In the second phase, based on the number of identified events and the number of available actuators, we study two actuator scheduling scenarios and formulate them as Integer Linear Programming (ILP) problems with the objective to minimize the actuation delay. We validate and demonstrate the performance of the proposed scheme through both simulations and physical experiments for a home temperature control application.

#### Real-Time Scheduling of Reconfigurable Battery-Powered Multi-Core Platforms

Participants : Daniel Chillet, Aymen Gammoudi.

Reconfigurable real-time embedded systems are constantly increasingly used in applications like autonomous robots or sensor networks. Since they are powered by batteries, these systems have to be energy-aware, to adapt to their environment, and to satisfy real-time constraints. For energy-harvesting systems, regular recharges of battery can be estimated. By including this parameter in the operating system, it is then possible to develop some strategy able to ensure the best execution of the application until the next recharge. In this context, operating system services must control the execution of tasks to meet the application constraints. Our objective concerns the proposition of a new real-time scheduling strategy that considers execution constraints such as the deadline of tasks and the energy for heterogeneous architectures. For such systems, we first addressed homogeneous architectures including $P$ identical cores. We assumed that they can be reconfigured dynamically by authorizing the addition and/or removal of periodic tasks and each core schedules its local tasks by using the EDF algorithm [20]. This work is extended to address heterogeneous systems for which each task has different execution parameters. The objective of this extension work is to develop a new strategy for mapping $N$ tasks to $P$ heterogeneous cores of a given distributed system [32]. For these two architectures models, we formulated the problem as an Integer Linear Program (ILP) optimization problem. Assuming that the energy consumed by the communication is dependent on the distance between cores, we proposed a mapping strategy to minimize the total cost of communication between cores by placing the dependent tasks as close as possible to each other. The proposed strategy guarantees that, when a task is mapped into the system and accepted, it is then correctly executed prior to the task deadline. Finally, as on-line scheduling is targeted for this work, we proposed heuristics to solve these problems in efficient way. These heuristics are based on the previous packing strategy developed for the mono-core architecture case. Experimental results reveal the effectiveness of the proposed strategy by comparing the derived heuristics with the optimal ones, obtained by solving an ILP problem

#### Improving the Reliability of Wireless NoC

Participants : Olivier Sentieys, Joel Ortiz Sosa.

Wireless Network-on-Chip (WiNoC) is one of the most promising solutions to overcome multi-hop latency and high power consumption of modern many/multi core System-on- Chip (SoC). However, the design of efficient wireless links faces challenges to overcome multi-path propagation present in realistic WiNoC channels. In order to alleviate such channel effect, we propose a Time-Diversity Scheme (TDS) to enhance the reliability of on-chip wireless links using a semi-realistic channel model in [45]. First, we study the significant performance degradation of state-of-the-art wireless transceivers subject to different levels of multi-path propagation. Then we investigate the impact of using some channel correction techniques adopting standard performance metrics. Experimental results show that the proposed Time-Diversity Scheme significantly improves Bit Error Rate (BER) compared to other techniques. Moreover, our TDS allows for wireless communication links to be established in conditions where this would be impossible for standard transceiver architectures. Results on the proposed complete transceiver, designed using a 28-nm FDSOI technology, show a power consumption of 0.63mW at 1.0V and an area of 317 $\mu {m}^{2}$. Full channel correction is performed in one single clock cycle.

#### Optical Network-on-Chip (ONoC) for 3D Multiprocessor Architectures

Participants : Jiating Luo, Van Dung Pham, Cédric Killian, Daniel Chillet, Olivier Sentieys.

Photonics on silicon is now a technology that offers real opportunities in the context of multiprocessor interconnect. The optical medium can support multiple transactions at the same time on different wavelengths by using Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM). Moreover, multiple wavelengths can be gathered as high-bandwidth channel to reduce transmission latency. However, multiple signals sharing simultaneously a waveguide lead to inter-channel crosstalk noise. This problem impacts the Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) of the optical signal, which increases the Bit Error Rate (BER) at the receiver side. We formulated the crosstalk noise and latency models and then proposed a Wavelength Allocation (WA) method in a ring-based WDM ONoC to reach performance and energy trade-offs based on application constraints. We show that for a 16-cluster ONoC architecture using 12 wavelengths, more than ${10}^{5}$ allocation solutions exist and only 51 are on a Pareto front giving a tradeoff between latency and energy per bit derived from the BER. These optimized solutions reduce the execution time of the application by $37%$ and the energy from 7.6fJ/bit to 4.4fJ/bit. In [22], we define high-level mechanisms which can handle wavelength allocation protocol of the communication medium for each data transfer between tasks. Indeed, the optical wavelengths are a shared resource between all the electrical computing clusters and are allocated at run time according to application needs and quality of service. We produce the communication configurations which are defined by the number of wavelengths for each communication, the level of quality for the communications, and the laser power levels. In [35], we define an Optical-Network-Interface (ONI) to connect a cluster of processors to the optical communication medium. This interface, constrained by the 10 Gb/s data-rate of the lasers, integrates Error Correcting Codes (ECC), laser drivers, and a communication manager. The ONI can select, at run-time, the communication mode to use depending on performance, latency or power constraints. The use of ECC is based on redundant bits which increases the transmission time, but saves power for a given Bit Error Rate (BER). Furthermore, the use of several wavelengths in parallel reduces latency and increases bandwidth, but also increases communication loss.