## Section: New Results

### Large scale data distribution

Participants : Mesaac Makpangou, Sébastien Monnet, Pierre Sens, Marc Shapiro, Paolo Viotti, Sreeja Nair, Ilyas Toumlilt, Alejandro Tomsic, Dimitrios Vasilas.

#### Data placement and searches over large distributed storage

Distributed storage systems such as Hadoop File System or Google File System (GFS) ensure data availability and durability using replication. Persistence is achieved by replicating the same data block on several nodes, and ensuring that a minimum number of copies are available on the system at any time. Whenever the contents of a node are lost, for instance due to a hard disk crash, the system regenerates the data blocks stored before the failure by transferring them from the remaining replicas. In [33] we focused on the analysis of the efficiency of replication mechanism that determines the location of the copies of a given file at some server. The variability of the loads of the nodes of the network is investigated for several policies. Three replication mechanisms are tested against simulations in the context of a real implementation of a such a system: Random, Least Loaded and Power of Choice. The simulations show that some of these policies may lead to quite unbalanced situations. It is shown in this paper that a simple variant of a power of choice type algorithm has a striking effect on the loads of the nodes. Mathematical models are introduced and investigated to explain this interesting phenomenon. The analysis of these systems turns out to be quite complicated mainly because of the large dimensionality of the state spaces involved. Our study relies on probabilistic methods, mean-field analysis, to analyze the asymptotic behavior of an arbitrary node of the network when the total number of nodes gets large.

In the summary prefix tree (SPT), a trie data structure that supports efficient superset searches over DHT. Each document is summarized by a Bloom filter which is then used by SPT to index this document. SPT implements an hybrid lookup procedure that is well-adapted to sparse indexing keys such as Bloom filters. It also proposes a mapping function that permits to mitigate the impact of the skewness of SPT due to the sparsity of Bloom filters, especially when they contain only few words. To perform efficient superset searches, SPT maintains on each node a local view of the global tree. The main contributions are the following. First, the approximation of the superset relationship among keyword-sets by the descendance relationship among Bloom filters. Second, the use of a summary prefix tree (SPT), a trie indexing data structure, for keyword-based search over DHT. Third, an hybrid lookup procedure which exploits the sparsity of Bloom filters to offer good performances. Finally, an algorithm that exploits SPT to efficiently find descriptions that are supersets of query keywords.

#### Just-Right Consistency

Consistency is a major concern in the design of distributed applications, but the topic is still not well understood. It is clear that no single consistency model is appropriate for all applications, but how do developers find their way in the maze of models and the inherent trade-offs between correctness and availability? The Just-Right Consistency approach presented here offers some guidance. First, we classify the safety patterns that are of interest to maintain application correctness. Second, we show how two of these patterns are “AP-compatible” and can be guaranteed without impacting availability, thanks to an appropriate data model and consistency model. Then we address the last, “CAP-sensitive” pattern. In a restricted but common case it can be maintained efficiently in a mostly-available way. In the general case, we exhibit a static analysis logic and tool which ensures just enough synchronisation to maintain the invariant, and availability otherwise.

In summary, instead of pre-defining a consistency model and shoe-horning
the application to fit it, and instead of making the application
developer compensate for the imperfections of the data store in an
*ad-hoc* way, we have a provably correct approach to tailoring
consistency to the specific application requirements.
This approach is supported by several artefacts developed by Regal and
collaborators: Conflict-Free Replicated Data Types (CRDTs), the
Antidote cloud database, and the CISE verification tool.

This paper is under submission.