Section: Application Domains
Applications of optimal transport
Image processing, biology, fluid mechanics, mathematical physics, game theory, traffic planning, financial mathematics, economics are among the most popular fields of application of the general theory of optimal transport. Many developments have been made in all these fields recently. Three more specific examples:

In image processing, since a greyscale image may be viewed as a measure, optimal transportation has been used because it gives a distance between measures corresponding to the optimal cost of moving densities from one to the other, see e.g. the work of J.M. Morel and coworkers [67].

In representation and approximation of geometric shapes, say by pointcloud sampling, it is also interesting to associate a measure, rather than just a geometric locus, to a distribution of points (this gives a small importance to exceptional “outlier” mistaken points, see [55]). The relevant distance between measures is again the one coming from optimal transportation.

A fluid motion or a crowd movement can be seen as the evolution of a density in a given space. If constraints are given on the directions in which these densities can evolve, we are in the framework of nonholonomic transport problems, i.e. these where the cost comes from the pointtopoint subRiemannian distance, or more general optimal control costs.