Section: Research Program
Research axis 1: analysis and control for population dynamics
Personnel
PierreAlexandre Bliman, Jean Clairambault, Marie Doumic, Alexander Lorz, Benoît Perthame
Projectteam positioning
Population dynamics is a field with varied and wide applications, many of them being in the core of MAMBA interests  cancer, bacterial growth, protein aggregation. Their theoretical study also brings a qualitative understanding on the interplay between individual growth, propagation and reproduction in such populations. In the previous periods of evaluation, many results where obtained in the BANG team on the asymptotic and qualitative behaviour of such structured population equations, see e.g. [113], [59], [79], [68]. Other Inria teams interested by this domain are Mycenae, Numed and Dracula, with which we are in close contacts. Among the leaders of the domain abroad, we can cite among others our colleagues Tom Banks (USA), Graeme Wake (New Zealand), Glenn Webb (USA), Jacek Banasiak (South Africa), Odo Diekmann (Netherlands), with whom we are also in regular contact. Most remarkably and recently, connections have also been made with probabilists working on Piecewise Deterministic Markov Processes (F. Malrieu at the university of Rennes, Jean Bertoin at the ETH in Zurich, Vincent Bansaye at Ecole Polytechnique, Julien Berestycki at Cambridge, Amaury Lambert at College de France, M. Hoffmann at Paris Dauphine), leading to a better understanding of the links between both types of results  see also axis 3.
Scientific achievements
We divide this research axis, which relies on the study of structured population equations, according to four different applications, bringing their own mathematical questions, e.g., stability, control, or blowup.
Time asymptotics for nucleation, growth and division equations
Following the many results obtained in the BANG team on the asymptotic and qualitative behaviour of structured population equation, we put our effort on the investigation of limit cases, where the trend to a steady state or to a steady exponential growth described by the first eigenvector fails to happen. In [65], the case of equal mitosis (division into two equallysized offspring) with linear growth rate was studied, and strangely enough, it appeared that the general relative entropy method could also be adapted to such a nondissipative case. Many discussions and common workshops with probabilists, especially through the ANR project PIECE coordinated by F. Malrieu, have led both communities to work closer.
In [77], the case of constant fragmentation rate and linear growth rate has been investigated in a deterministic approach, whereas similar questions were simultaneously raised but in a stochastic process approach in [62].
We also enriched the models by taking into account a nucleation term, modeling the spontaneous formation of large polymers out of monomers [122]. We investigated the interplay between four processes: nucleation, polymerization, depolymerization and fragmentation.
The ERC Starting Grant SKIPPER${}^{AD}$ (Doumic) supported and was the guideline for the study of nucleation, growth and fragmentation equations.
Cell population dynamics and its control.
One of the important incentives for such model design, source of many theoretical works, is the challenging question of druginduced drug resistance in cancer cell populations, described in more detail below in axis 4, Cancer. The adaptive dynamics setting used consists of phenotypestructured integrodifferential [or reactiondiffusion, when phenotype instability is added under the form of a Laplacian] equations describing the dynamic behaviour of different cell populations interacting in a LotkaVolterralike manner that represents common growth limitation due to scarcity of expansion space and nutrients. The phenotype structure allows us to analyse the evolution in phenotypic traits of the populations under study and its asymptotics for two populations [109], [106], [105], [107]. Space may be added as a complementary structure variable provided that something is known of the (Cartesian) geometry of the population [108], which is seldom the case.
Mathematical models of infectious diseases
These models are made to understand and predict the dynamics of the spread of infectious diseases. We initiated studies with the aim to understand how to use epidemiological data (typically given through incidence rate) in order to estimate the state of the population as well as constants, characteristic of the epidemics such as the transmission rate. The methods rely on observation and identification techniques borrowed from control theory.
Models of neural network
Mean field limits have been proposed by biophysicists in order to describe neural networks based on physiological models. The various resulting equations are called integrateandfire, time elapsed models, voltageconductance models. Their specific nonlinearities and the blowup phenomena make their originality which has led to develop specific mathematical analysis [116], followed by [112], [101], [117], [67]. This field also yields a beautiful illustration for the capacity of the team to combine and compare stochastic and PDE modelling (see axis 3), in [72].
Collaborations

Nucleation, growth and fragmentation equations: Juan Calvo, university of Granada, came for two onemonth visits, Miguel Escobedo, University of Bilbao (see also axis 3), Pierre Gabriel, University of VersaillesSaint Quentin, former B. Perthame and M. Doumic's Ph.D student, who now cosupervises Hugo Martin's Ph.D thesis.

Cell population dynamics and its control: Tommaso Lorenzi, former Mamba postdoc, now at the University of St. Andrews, Scotland, maintains a vivid collaboration with the Mamba team. He is in particular an external member of the HTE program MoGlImaging (see also axis 4). Emmanuel Trélat, UPMC professor, member of LJLL and of the CAGE Inria team, is the closest Mamba collaborator for optimal control.

Estimation and identification of epidemiological models: Maria Soledad Aronna, Fundação Getulio Vargas, Brazil; Alain Rapaport, INRAMontpellier; Abderrahmane Iggidr, Inria NancyGrand Est

Neural networks: Delphine Salort, Professor UPMC, Laboratory for computations and quantification in biology, and Patricia Reynaud, University of Nice, Maria Cáceres, university of Granada.