Overall Objectives
Research Program
Application Domains
Highlights of the Year
New Software and Platforms
New Results
Bilateral Contracts and Grants with Industry
Partnerships and Cooperations
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Section: New Results


Participants : Nathalie Mitton, Mouna Masmoudi.

Geographic routing is an attractive routing strategy in wireless sensor networks. It works well in dense networks, but it may suffer from the void problem. For this purpose, a recovery step is required to guarantee packet delivery. Face routing has widely been used as a recovery strategy since proved to guarantee delivery. However, it relies on a planar graph not always achievable in realistic wireless networks and may generate long paths. In [23], [12], we propose GRACO, a new geographic routing algorithm that combines a greedy forwarding and a recovery strategy based on swarm intelligence. During recovery, ant packets search for alternative paths and drop pheromone trails to guide next packets within the network. GRACO avoids holes and produces near optimal paths. Simulation results demonstrate that GRACO leads to a significant improvement of routing performance and scalability when compared to the literature algorithms.

GRACO has first been designed in the general case. We then studied its applicability to the Virtual Power Plants and their specific data packets with different priorities [23], [12]. Indeed, the Smart Grid (SG) incorporates communication networks to the conventional electricity system in order to intelligently integrate distributed energy resources (DERs) and allow for demand side management. The move to Smart grid in developing countries has to cope with great disparities of ICT infrastructures even within the same city. Besides, individual DERs are often too small to be allowed access to energy market, likewise power utilities are unable to effectively control and manage small DERs. We propose the use of affordable and scalable wireless communication technology to aggregate geographically sparse DERs into a single virtual power plant. The enrollment of prosumers in the VPP is conditional to financial performance of the plant. Thus, the VPPs are dynamic and are expected to scale up as more and more prosumers are attracted by their financial benefits. the communication network has to follow this progression and therefore to be scalable and rapidly deploy-able. We present a routing algorithm for data communication within the VPP to support centralized, decentralized or fully distributed control of the VPP's DERs.

Based on this study, we adapted GRACO so it can fit the specific cases of Smart Grid [23], [12] and more specifically to the Neighbor Area Networks (NAN) of Smart Grids, or distribution segment of the power system in the smart grid (SG). The deployment of ICT to support conventional grid will solve legacy problems that used to prevent implementation of smart services such as smart metering, demand side management or the integration of Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) within the smart grid. We demonstrate the effectiveness of GRACO in terms of scalability, peer-to-peer routing, end-to-end delay and delivery rate.

In another context, we made the observation that typical betweenness centrality metrics neglect the potential contribution of nodes that are near but not exactly on shortest paths. The idea of [35] is to give more value to these nodes. We propose a weighted betweenness centrality, a novel metric that assigns weights to nodes based on the stretch of the paths they intermediate against the shortest paths. We compare the proposed metric with the traditional and the distance-scaled betweenness metrics using four different network datasets. Results show that the weighted betweenness centrality pinpoints and promotes nodes that are underestimated by typical metrics, which can help to avoid network disconnections and better exploit multipath protocols.