Overall Objectives
Research Program
Application Domains
Highlights of the Year
New Software and Platforms
New Results
Bilateral Contracts and Grants with Industry
Partnerships and Cooperations
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Section: Research Program

The AAA (Algorithm-Architecture Adequation) methodology and Real-Time Scheduling

Participants : Laurent George, Dumitru Potop Butucaru, Yves Sorel.

Note: The AAA methodology and the SynDEx environment are fully described at , together with relevant publications .

Algorithm-Architecture Adequation

The AAA methodology relies on distributed real-time scheduling and relevant optimization to connect an Algorithm/Application model to an Architectural one. We now describe its premises and benefits.

The Algorithm model is an extension of the well known data-flow model from Dennis [64] . It is a directed acyclic hyper-graph (DAG) that we call “conditioned factorized data dependence graph”, whose vertices are “operations” and hyper-edges are directed “data or control dependences” between operations. The data dependences define a partial order on the operations execution. The basic data-flow model was extended in three directions: first infinite (resp. finite) repetition of a sub-graph pattern in order to specify the reactive aspect of real-time systems (resp. in order to specify the finite repetition of a sub-graph consuming different data similar to a loop in imperative languages), second “state” when data dependences are necessary between different infinite repetitions of the sub-graph pattern introducing cycles which must be avoided by introducing specific vertices called “delays” (similar to z-n in automatic control), third “conditioning” of an operation by a control dependence similar to conditional control structure in imperative languages, allowing the execution of alternative subgraphs. Delays combined with conditioning allow the programmer to specify automata necessary for describing “mode changes”.

The Architecture model is a directed graph, whose vertices are of two types: “processor” (one sequencer of operations and possibly several sequencers of communications) and “medium” (support of communications), and whose edges are directed connections.

The resulting implementation model [9] is obtained by an external compositional law, for which the architecture graph operates on the algorithm graph. Thus, the result of such compositional law is an algorithm graph, "architecture-aware", corresponding to refinements of the initial algorithm graph, by computing spatial (distribution) and timing (scheduling) allocations of the operations onto the architecture graph resources. In that context "Adequation" refers to some search amongst the solution space of resulting algorithm graphs, labelled by timing characteristics, for one algorithm graph which verifies timing constraints and optimizes some criteria, usually the total execution time and the number of computing resources (but other criteria may exist). The next section describes distributed real-time schedulability analysis and optimization techniques for that purpose.

Distributed Real-Time Scheduling and Optimization

We address two main issues: uniprocessor and multiprocessor real-time scheduling where constraints must mandatorily be met, otherwise dramatic consequences may occur (hard real-time) and where resources must be minimized because of embedded features.

In the case of uniprocessor real-time scheduling, besides the classical deadline constraint, often equal to a period, we take into consideration dependences beetween tasks and several, latencies. The latter are complex related “end-to-end” constraints. Dealing with multiple real-time constraints raises the complexity of the scheduling problems. Moreover, because the preemption leads, at least, to a waste of resources due to its approximation in the WCET (Worst Execution Time) of every task, as proposed by Liu and Leyland [68] , we first studied non-preemtive real-time scheduling with dependences, periodicities, and latencies constraints. Although a bad approximation of the preemption cost, may have dramatic consequences on real-time scheduling, there are only few researches on this topic. We have been investigating preemptive real-time scheduling since few years, and we focus on the exact cost of the preemption. We have integrated this cost in the schedulability conditions that we propose, and in the corresponding scheduling algorithms. More generally, we are interested in integrating in the schedulability analyses the cost of the RTOS (Real-Time Operating System), for which the cost of preemption is the most difficult part because it varies according to the instance (job) of each task.

In the case of multiprocessor real-time scheduling, we chose at the beginning the partitioned approach, rather than the global approach, since the latter allows task migrations whose cost is prohibitive for current commercial processors. The partitioned approach enables us to reuse the results obtained in the uniprocessor case in order to derive solutions for the multiprocessor case. We consider also the semi-partitioned approach which allows only some migrations in order to minimize the overhead they involve. In addition to satisfy the multiple real-time constraints mentioned in the uniprocessor case, we have to minimize the total execution time (makespan) since we deal with automatic control applications involving feedback loops. Furthermore, the domain of embedded systems leads to solving minimization resources problems. Since these optimization problems are NP-hard we develop exact algorithms (B & B, B & C) which are optimal for simple problems, and heuristics which are sub-optimal for realistic problems corresponding to industrial needs. Long time ago we proposed a very fast “greedy” heuristics [8] whose results were regularly improved, and extended with local neighborhood heuristics, or used as initial solutions for metaheuristics.

In addition to the spatial dimension (distributed) of the real-time scheduling problem, other important dimensions are the type of communication mechanisms (shared memory vs. message passing), or the source of control and synchronization (event-driven vs. time-triggered). We explore real-time scheduling on architectures corresponding to all combinations of the above dimensions. This is of particular impact in application domains such as automotive and avionics (see 4.3 ).

The arrival of complex hardware responding to the increasing demand for computing power in next generation systems exacerbates the limitations of the current worst-case real-time reasoning. Our solution to overcome these limitations is based on the fact that worst-case situations may have a extremely low probability of appearance within one hour of functioning (10-45), compared to the certification requirements for instance (10-9 for the highest level of certification in avionics ). Thus we model and analyze the real-time systems using probabilistic models and we propose results that are fundamental for the probabilistic worst-case reasoning over a given time window.