Overall Objectives
Research Program
Application Domains
Highlights of the Year
New Software and Platforms
New Results
Bilateral Contracts and Grants with Industry
Partnerships and Cooperations
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Section: New Results

Multiprocessor Real-Time Scheduling

Participants : Aderraouf Benyahia, Laurent George, Salah Eddine Saidi, Yves Sorel, Robert Davis, Liliana Cucu.

In the context of the PhD thesis of Salah Eddine Saidi we considered the co-simulation of several process models specified in continuous time and several controllers models specified in discrete time according to a real-time hardware in the loop approach. These models specified with different tools such as Simulink, AMEsim, Modelica, etc., cooperate according to the FMI standard. They are translated in a dataflow graph that is compliant with the conditioned repetitive dataflow model of our AAA methodology for functional specification. Each model considers the feed-through function as well as the functions which depend of the state, and the state computation itself. In order to meet the real-time constraints of such complex co-simulation we need to execute them on multicore platforms. We studied the limitations of greedy and local search distributed real-time scheduling heuristics we developped in the past for control applications. The first limitation is related to the FMI standard which requires that the functions belonging to a model are allocated to the same core. We first try to introduce additional semaphores in the real-time code generated automatically to avoid these situations. Unfortunately, this solution decreases significantly the acceleration brought by the multicore. Therefore, we started to investigate graph based techniques that add non directed edges to specify the FMI relation and search solutions where some non oriended edges can be oriented to minimize locally the makespan.

In the context of the master internship of Mamadou Diallo we studied the possibilities to extend the offline time trigger scheduler implemented on a uniprocessor to the multiprocessor case. Since the embedded board based on the ARM Cortex M4 we utilize features an ethernet interface, we conducted several experimentations on ethernet switches to measure the end-to-end communication time between several real-time tasks running on such boards with such schedulers.

We completed the work on the gateway with modeling languages for certified code generation carried out in the P FUI project 9.2.2 which ended in June 2015. Mainly, we tested the P modeling language to SynDEx gateway on four industrial use cases provided by AdaCore, Continental and Aboard Engeneering. We specified these applications with the P language and translated them in the SynDEx format. With SynDEx we analysed the schedulability and automatically generated the corresponding code for an Intel 8 cores Xeon ES-1620v2 3.70Ghz. For these applications ranging from 103 to 1403 bloks we obtained an acceleration factor equal to the number of cores.

Thanks in part to the arrival of Rob Davis, our team has participated to the proposition of a new framework in the context of multicore platforms: Multicore Response Time Analysis framework [34] . This proposal was made in close collaboration with academic partners such as the University of Luxembourg, Verimag and ISEP Porto. The framework is extensible to different multicore architectures, with various types and arrangements of local memory, and different arbitration policies for the common interconnects. The MRTA framework provides a general approach to timing verification for multicore systems, parametric in the hardware configuration, and so can be used architectural design stage to compare the guaranteed levels of performance that can be obtained with different hardware configurations. The MRTA framework decouples response time analysis from a reliance on context independent WCET values. Instead, the analysis specifies response times directly according to requirements on different hardware resources.