Section: New Results
Quantifying Uncertainty
Sensitivity Analysis for Forecasting Ocean Models
Participants : Eric Blayo, Laurent Gilquin, Céline Helbert, FrançoisXavier Le Dimet, Simon Nanty, Maëlle Nodet, Clémentine Prieur, Laurence Viry, Federico Zertuche.
Scientific context
Forecasting geophysical systems require complex models, which sometimes need to be coupled, and which make use of data assimilation. The objective of this project is, for a given output of such a system, to identify the most influential parameters, and to evaluate the effect of uncertainty in input parameters on model output. Existing stochastic tools are not well suited for high dimension problems (in particular timedependent problems), while deterministic tools are fully applicable but only provide limited information. So the challenge is to gather expertise on one hand on numerical approximation and control of Partial Differential Equations, and on the other hand on stochastic methods for sensitivity analysis, in order to develop and design innovative stochastic solutions to study high dimension models and to propose new hybrid approaches combining the stochastic and deterministic methods.
Estimating sensitivity indices
A first task is to develop tools for estimated sensitivity indices. In variancebased sensitivity analysis, a classical tool is the method of Sobol' [101] which allows to compute Sobol' indices using Monte Carlo integration. One of the main drawbacks of this approach is that the estimation of Sobol' indices requires the use of several samples. For example, in a $d$dimensional space, the estimation of all the firstorder Sobol' indices requires $d+1$ samples. Some interesting combinatorial results have been introduced to weaken this defect, in particular by Saltelli [99] and more recently by Owen [97] but the quantities they estimate still require $O\left(d\right)$ samples.
In a recent work [21] we introduce a new approach to estimate all firstorder Sobol' indices by using only two samples based on replicated latin hypercubes and all secondorder Sobol' indices by using only two samples based on replicated randomized orthogonal arrays. We establish theoretical properties of such a method for the firstorder Sobol' indices and discuss the generalization to higherorder indices. As an illustration, we propose to apply this new approach to a marine ecosystem model of the Ligurian sea (northwestern Mediterranean) in order to study the relative importance of its several parameters. The calibration process of this kind of chemical simulators is wellknown to be quite intricate, and a rigorous and robust — i.e. valid without strong regularity assumptions — sensitivity analysis, as the method of Sobol' provides, could be of great help. The computations are performed by using CIGRI, the middleware used on the grid of the Grenoble University High Performance Computing (HPC) center. We are also applying these estimates to calibrate integrated land use transport models. As for these models, some groups of inputs are correlated, Laurent Gilquin extended the approach based on replicated designs for the estimation of grouped Sobol' indices [70] .
We can now wonder what are the asymptotic properties of these new estimators, or also of more classical ones. In [10] , the authors deal with asymptotic properties of the estimators. In [89] , the authors establish also a multivariate central limit theorem and non asymptotic properties.
Intrusive sensitivity analysis, reduced models
Another point developed in the team for sensitivity analysis is model reduction. To be more precise regarding model reduction, the aim is to reduce the number of unknown variables (to be computed by the model), using a well chosen basis. Instead of discretizing the model over a huge grid (with millions of points), the state vector of the model is projected on the subspace spanned by this basis (of a far lesser dimension). The choice of the basis is of course crucial and implies the success or failure of the reduced model. Various model reduction methods offer various choices of basis functions. A wellknown method is called “proper orthogonal decomposition" or “principal component analysis". More recent and sophisticated methods also exist and may be studied, depending on the needs raised by the theoretical study. Model reduction is a natural way to overcome difficulties due to huge computational times due to discretizations on fine grids. In [92] , the authors present a reduced basis offline/online procedure for viscous Burgers initial boundary value problem, enabling efficient approximate computation of the solutions of this equation for parametrized viscosity and initial and boundary value data. This procedure comes with a fastevaluated rigorous error bound certifying the approximation procedure. The numerical experiments in the paper show significant computational savings, as well as efficiency of the error bound.
When a metamodel is used (for example reduced basis metamodel, but also kriging, regression, $...$) for estimating sensitivity indices by Monte Carlo type estimation, a twofold error appears: a sampling error and a metamodel error. Deriving confidence intervals taking into account these two sources of uncertainties is of great interest. We obtained results particularly well fitted for reduced basis metamodels [14] . In [91] , the authors provide asymptotic confidence intervals in the double limit where the sample size goes to infinity and the metamodel converges to the true model. These results were also adapted to problems related to more general models such as ShallowWater equations, in the context of the control of an open channel [72] .
Let us come back to the output of interest. Is it possible to get better error certification when the output is specified. A work in this sense has been submitted, dealing with goal oriented uncertainties assessment [71] .
Sensitivity analysis with dependent inputs
An important challenge for stochastic sensitivity analysis is to develop methodologies which work for dependent inputs. For the moment, there does not exist conclusive results in that direction. Our aim is to define an analogue of Hoeffding decomposition [90] in the case where input parameters are correlated. Clémentine Prieur supervised Gaëlle Chastaing's PhD thesis on the topic (defended in September 2013) [78] . We obtained first results [79] , deriving a general functional ANOVA for dependent inputs, allowing defining new variance based sensitivity indices for correlated inputs. We then adapted various algorithms for the estimation of these new indices. These algorithms make the assumption that among the potential interactions, only few are significant. Two papers have been recently accepted [66] and [80] . We also considered (see the paragraph 6.4.1 ) the estimation of groups Sobol' indices, with a procedure based on replicated designs. These indices provide information at the level of groups, and not at a finer level, but their interpretation is still rigorous.
Céline Helbert and Clémentine Prieur supervise the PhD thesis of Simon Nanty (funded by CEA Cadarache). The subject of the thesis is the analysis of uncertainties for numerical codes with temporal and spatiotemporal input variables, with application to safety and impact calculation studies. This study implies functional dependent inputs. A first step is the modeling of these inputs, and a paper has been submitted [74] .
Multyfidelity modeling for risk analysis
Federico Zertuche's PhD concerns the modeling and prediction of a digital output from a computer code when multiple levels of fidelity of the code are available. A lowfidelity output can be obtained, for example on a coarse mesh. It is cheaper, but also much less accurate than a highfidelity output obtained on a fine mesh. In this context, we propose new approaches to relieve some restrictive assumptions of existing methods ( [93] , [98] ): a new estimation method of the classical cokriging model when designs are not nested and a nonparametric modeling of the relationship between lowfidelity and highfidelity levels. The PhD takes place in the REDICE consortium and in close link with industry. The first part of the thesis was also dedicated to the development of a case study in fluid mechanics with CEA in the context of the study of a nuclear reactor.
The second part of the thesis was dedicated to the development of a new sequential approach based on a course to fine wavelets algorithm. Federico Zertuche presented his work at the annual meeting of the GDR Mascot Num in 2014 [36] .
Data assimilation and second order sensitivity analysis
A main advantage of Variational Methods in Data Assimilation is to exhibit a socalled Optimality System (OS) that contains all the available information : model, data, statistics. Therefore a sensitivity analysis (i.e. the evaluation of the gradient) with respect to the inputs of the model has to be carried out on the OS. With iMECH and INM we have applied sensitivity analysis in the framework of a pollution problem in a lake. The application of second order analysis for sensitivity permits to evaluate the sensitivity with respect to observations and furthermore to determine the optimal location of new sensors at points with the highest sensitivity [16] , [52] .
This methodology has been applied to

Oil Spill. These last years have known several disasters produced by wrecking of ships and drifting platforms with severe consequences on the physical and biological environments. In order to minimize the impact of these oil spills its necessary to predict the evolution of oil spot. Some basic models are available and some satellites provide images on the evolution of oil spots. Clearly this topic is a combination of the two previous one: data assimilation for pollution and assimilation of images. A theoretical framework has been developed with Dr. Tran Thu Ha (iMech).

Data Assimilation in Supercavitation (with iMech). Some self propelled submarine devices can reach a high speed thanks to phenomenon of supercavitation: an air bubble is created on the nose of the device and reduces drag forces. Some models of supercavitation already exist but are working on two applications of variational methods to supercavitation:

Parameter identification : the models have some parameters that can not be directly measured. From observations we retrieve the unknown parameters using a classical formalism of inverse problems.

Shape Optimization. The question is to determine an optimum design of the shape of the engine in order to reach a maximum speed.
