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Section: New Results


High-Order Time Schemes

Fourth order energy-preserving locally implicit discretization for linear wave equations

Participants : Juliette Chabassier, Sébastien Imperiale.

A family of fourth order coupled implicit-explicit schemes is presented as a special case of fourth order coupled implicit schemes for linear wave equations. The domain of interest is decomposed into several regions where different fourth order time discretization are used, chosen among a family of implicit or explicit fourth order schemes derived in  [72] . The coupling is based on a Lagrangian formulation on the boundaries between the several non conforming meshes of the regions. A global discrete energy is shown to be preserved and leads to global fourth order consistency. Numerical results in 1d and 2d illustrate the good behavior of the schemes and their potential for the simulation of realistic highly heterogeneous media or strongly refined geometries, for which using everywhere an explicit scheme can be extremely penalizing. Accuracy up to fourth order reduces the numerical dispersion inherent to implicit methods used with a large time step, and makes this family of schemes attractive compared to second order accurate methods in time. This work has been presented at the Franco-Russian workshop on mathematical geophysics, Sep 2014, Novosibirsk, Russia [58] , at the and is the object of a submitted publication to International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering.

A new modified equation approach for solving the wave equation

Participants : Hélène Barucq, Henri Calandra, Julien Diaz, Florent Ventimiglia.

In order to obtain high-order time-schemes, we are considering an alternative approach to the ADER schemes and to the modified equation technique described in section  3.2 . The two first steps of the construction of the schemes are similar to the previous schemes : we apply a Taylor expansion in time to the solution of the wave equation and we replace the high-order derivatives with respect to the time by high order space operators, using the wave equation. The difference is that we do not use auxiliary variables and we choose to discretize directly the high-order operators in space.

In the framework of the PhD thesis of Florent Ventimiglia, we have extended this new method involving p-harmonic operator to the first order formulation of the acoustic wave equation, which is the formulation discretized in the DIVA platform of TOTAL. In this case, the high order operators in space are not are not powers of the Laplace operator but powers of the gradient. Hence, we also had to adapt the space discretization, and we have extended the DG formulation with centered fluxes proposed in  [77] to higher order operators. A numerical analysis of performance in 2D indicates that, for a given accuracy, this method requires less computational costs and less storage than the High-Order ADER Scheme. These results have been presented to the AIMS conference [54] . A paper has been published in ESAIM Proceedings [19] .

Finite Element Methods for the time-harmonic wave equation.

Goal-Oriented Adaptivity using Unconventional Error Representations

Participants : Vincent Darrigrand, David Pardo, Ignacio Muga, Hélène Barucq.

In the scope of subsurface modelling via the resolution of inverse problems, the so-called goal-oriented adaptivity plays a fundamental role. Indeed, while classical adaptive algorithms were first designed to accurately approximate the energy norm of a problem  [69] , [70] , one requires a good approximation of a specific quantity of interest. An energy norm driven self-adaptive strategy can still be used for that purpose, although it often becomes sub-optimal and unable to provide an accurate solution for the required quantity of interest in a reasonable amount of time.

During the late 90’s, to overcome this issue, the so-called goal-oriented strategy appeared, see for instance   [82] , [81] . The goal-oriented approach consists in expressing the error in the quantity of interest as an integral over the entire computational domain involving the errors of the original and adjoint problems, and then minimise an upper bound of such error representation by performing local refinements.

Most authors, using the adjoint problem, represent the approximation error in the quantity of interest via the global bilinear form that describes the problem in terms of local and computable quantities.

Our methodology, however, is based on the selection of an alternative bilinear form exhibiting better properties than the original bilinear form (e.g. positive definiteness). We represent the residual error functional of the adjoint problem through this alternative form. We can then compute new upper bounds of the error of the quantity of interest in a similar way than with the classical approach. Our main goal is to demonstrate that a proper choice of such alternative form may improve the upper bounds of the error representation.

Moreover, the method proposed here generalises the existing ones, since, in particular, we can select as the alternative bilinear form the one associated to the adjoint problem.

Hybridizable Discontinuous Galerkin method for the elastic Helmholtz equations

Participants : Marie Bonnasse-Gahot, Henri Calandra, Julien Diaz, Stéphane Lanteri.

We consider Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) methods formulated on fully unstructured meshes, which are more convenient than finite difference methods on cartesian grids to handle the topography of the subsurface. DG methods and classical Finite Element (FE) methods mainly differ from discrete functions which are only piecewise continuous in the case of DG approximation. DG methods are then more suitable than Continuous Galerkin (CG) methods to deal with hp-adaptivity. This is a great advantage to DG method which is thus fully adapted to calculations in highly heterogeneous media. Nevertheless, the main drawback of classical DG methods is that they are more expensive in terms of number of unknowns than classical CG methods, especially when arbitrarily high order interpolation of the field components is used. In this case DG methods lead to larger sparse linear systems with a higher number of globally coupled degrees of freedom as compared to CG methods with a same given mesh. In that case, we consider a hybridizable Discontinuous Galerkin (HDG) method which principle consists in introducing a Lagrange multiplier representing the trace of the numerical solution on each face of the mesh cells. This new variable exists only on the faces of the mesh and the unknowns of the problem depend on it. This allows us to reduce the number of unknowns of the global linear system. Now the size of the matrix to be inverted only depends on the number of the faces of the mesh and on the number of the degrees of freedom of each face. It is worth noting that for the classical DG method it depends on the number of the cells of the mesh and on the number of the degrees of freedom of each cell. The solution to the initial problem is then recovered thanks to independent elementwise calculation. The principle of the HDG method and 2D results were presented at the WCCM XI - ECCM V - ECFD VI - Barcelona 2014 Conference [41] , the EAGE Workshop on High Performance Computing for Upstream [42] , the Second Russian-French Workshop “Computational Geophysics” [43] and at the Réunion des Sciences de la Terre 2014 conference [53] . A comparison between HDG method and classical nodal DG method was given on a poster at the Journées Total-Mathias 2014 workshop [66] .


Participants : Hélène Barucq, Juliette Chabassier, Marc Duruflé, Damien Fournier, Laurent Gizon.

The finite element code Montjoie 5.2 has been used to solve Helmholtz equation in axisymmetric domain in the configuration of the sun. The efficiency of the code has been compared in three configurations : radial (1-D mesh and spherical harmonics), axisymmetric (2-D mesh), 3-D. The results have convinced our-selves and our partners of Max Planck Institute that the axisymmetric configuration is the most interesting for an inversion procedure, since 3-D computations are too expensive. A more realistic modeling of the sun requires the solution of time-harmonic Galbrun's equations (instead of Helmholtz equation), different formulations have been implemented and studied. It appeared that the different numerical methods are not able to converge to the correct solution for non-uniform flows. The lack of convergence is more obvious for flows with a larger Mach number. Such problems do not appear in Linearized Euler equations, as a result we have proposed simplified Galbrun's equations that converge correctly and provide the same solution as original Galbrun's equations for a null flow. These equations have been implemented in 2-D, axisymmetric and 3-D configuration.

Scattering of acoustic waves by a disc - Hypersingular integral equations

Participants : Leandro Farina, Paul Martin, Victor Péron.

Two-dimensional boundary-value problems involving a Neumann-type boundary condition on a thin plate or crack can often be reduced to one-dimensional hypersingular integral equations. Examples are potential flow past a rigid plate, acoustic scattering by a hard strip, water-wave interaction with thin impermeable barriers, and stress fields around cracks. In [29] , we generalize some of these results to two-dimensional hypersingular integral equations. Thus, rather than integrating over a finite interval, we now integrate over a circular disc. Two-dimensional hypersingular equations over a disc arise, for example, in the scattering of acoustic waves by a hard disc; this particular application is described in Appendix A. We develop an appropriate spectral (Galerkin) method, using Fourier expansions in the azimuthal direction and Jacobi polynomials in the radial direction. The Hilbert-space arguments used by Golberg are generalized and a convergence theorem is proved by using tensor-product techniques. Our results are proved in weighted L2 spaces. Then, Tranter's method is discussed. This method was devised in the 1950s to solve certain pairs of dual integral equations. It is shown that this method is also convergent because it leads to the same algebraic system as the spectral method.

Finite Element Subproblem Method

Participants : Patrick Dular, Christophe Geuzaine, Laurent Krähenbühl, Victor Péron.

In the paper [26] , the modeling of eddy currents in conductors is split into a sequence of progressive finite element subproblems. The source fields generated by the inductors alone are calculated at first via either the Biot-Savart law or finite elements. The associated reaction fields for each added conductive region, and in return for the source regions themselves when massive, are then calculated with finite element models, possibly with initial perfect conductor and/or impedance boundary conditions to be further corrected. The resulting subproblem method allows efficient solving of parameterized analyses thanks to a proper mesh for each subproblem and the reuse of previous solutions to be locally corrected.

High Order Methods for Helmholtz Problems in Highly Heterogeneous Media

Participants : Théophile Chaumont-Frelet, Henri Calandra, Hélène Barucq, Christian Gout.

Heterogeneous Helmholtz problems arise in various geophysical application where they modelize the propagation of time harmonic waves through the subsurface. For example, in inversion problems, the aim is to reconstruct a map of the underground based on surface acquisition. This recovery process involves the solution to several Helmholtz problems set in different media, and high frequency solutions are required to obtain a detailed image of the underground. This obervations motivate the design of efficient solver for highly heterogeneous Helmholtz problems at high frequency.

The main issue with the discretization of high frequency problems is the so called “pollution effect” which impose drastic condition on the mesh. In the homogeneous case, it is known that one efficient way to reduce the pollution effect is the use of high order discretization methods. However, high order methods can not be applied as is to highly heterogeneous media. Indeed, they are based on coarser mesh and are not sensitive to fine scale variations of the medium.

We propose to overcome this difficulty by using a multiscale strategy to take into account fine scale heterogeneities on coarse meshes. The method is based on a simple medium approximation method, which can be seen as a special quadrature rule. Numerical experiments in two dimensional geophyscial benchmarks show that high order method coupled with our multiscale approximation medium stragey are cheaper than low order method for a given accuracy. Futhermore, focusing on one dimensional models, we were able to show from a theoretical point of view that our methology reduces the pollution effect even when used on coarse meshes with non-matching interfaces.

This work has been presented at the WCCM XI - ECCM V - ECFD VI - Barcelona 2014 conference, the Second Russian-French Workshop “Computational Geophysics”. A poster has been presented at the journées Total-Mathias 2014 workshop. A paper has been submitted for publication to Math. Of Comp..

Boundary conditions.

Absorbing Boundary Conditions for Tilted Transverse Isotropic Elastic Media

Participants : Lionel Boillot, Hélène Barucq, Julien Diaz, Henri Calandra.

The seismic imaging simulations are always performed in bounded domains whose external boundary does not have physical meaning. We have thus to couple the wave equations with boundary conditions which aim at reproduce the invisibility of the external boundary. The discretization of these conditions can be an issue. For instance, an efficient condition, once discretized, can induce huge computational costs by filling the matrix which has to be inverted. This is the case of the transparent boundary conditions which are approximated by local Absorbing Boundary Conditions (ABC) that do not increase to much the computational burden. However, the ABC has the drawback to introduce spurious numerical waves which can perturb the RTM results. It is possible to avoid this drawback by applying PML (Perfectly Matched Layers) but it proves to be unstable in anisotropic media. Last year, we proposed a way of construction leading to a stable ABC. The technique is based on slowness curve properties, giving to our approach an original side. We established stability results from long time energy behavior and we have illustrated the performance of the new condition in 2D numerical tests. This year, we extend all these results to 3D case and to arbitrary boundary shapes. The previous paper submission on 2D results has been accepted and released [18] . The recent results in 3D have been presented to the ECCOMAS conference.

Derivation of high order absorbing boundary conditions for the Helmholtz equation in 2D.

Participants : Hélène Barucq, Morgane Bergot, Juliette Chabassier, Élodie Estecahandy.

Numerical simulation of wave propagation raises the issue of dealing with outgoing waves. In most of the applications, the physical domain is unbounded and an artificial truncation needs indeed to be carried out for applying numerical methods like finite element approximations. Adapted boundary conditions that avoid the reflection of outgoing waves and provide a well-posed mathematical problem must then be derived. With ideal boundary conditions, the solution on the new mixed boundary valued problem in the truncated domain would actually be equal to the restriction of the mathematical solution in the unbounded domain. However, such ideal boundary conditions, called “transparent boundary conditions”, can be shown to be nonlocal, which leads to dramatic computational overcosts. The seek of local boundary conditions, called “absorbing boundary conditions” (ABC), has been the object of numerous works trying to perform efficient conditions based on different techniques of derivation. Among them, the technique of micro-diagonalisation has been employed to the wave equation and more generally to hyperbolic systems in  [76] , leading to a hierarchy of absorbing local boundary conditions based on the approximation of the Dirichlet-to-Neumann map. A comprehensive review of different used strategies and higher order conditions can be found in  [85] . One desirable property of ABCs is that the reflection of the waves on the artificial boundary generates an error of the same order as the one generated by the spatial discretization inside the domain. The computational effort is thus optimized in terms of modeling and numerical inaccuracies. Moreover, the ABC must fit the artificial boundary chosen by the user of the method. In the context of high order spatial discretization (spectral finite elements [74] , Interior Penalized Discontinuous Galerkin [68] ), there is nowadays a need for high order ABCs that can adapt on non flat geometries since these methods prove very efficient for capturing arbitrary shaped domains.

The aim of the present work is to develop high order ABCs for the Helmholtz equation, that can adapt to regular shaped surfaces. A classical way of designing ABCs is to use Nirenberg theorem [80] on the second order formulation of the Helmholtz equation, which enables us to decompose the operator as a product of two first order operators. Here our approach is to rewrite the Helmholtz equation as a first order system of equations before developing ABCs using M.E. Taylor's micro-diagonalisation method [84] . Then an asymptotic truncation must be performed in order to make the ABC local, and we will see that the high frequency approximation will lead to more usable ABCs than the one stating that the angle of incidence is small. During the process, while increasing the degree of the pseudo differential operator decomposition along with the order of asymptotic truncation, we retrieve classical ABCs that have been found with other techniques by other authors. For now, we have restricted ourselves to two dimensions of space, but despite the fact that 3D generalization should obviously generate more calculation, no further theoretical difficulties are expected.

This work has been the object of a technical report [61] and the obtained conditions have been implemented in Montjoie  5.2 and Houd10ni 5.1 .

Asymptotic modeling.

Fast Simulation of Through-casing Resistivity Measurements Using Semi-analytical Asymptotic Models.

Participants : Victor Péron, David Pardo, Aralar Erdozain.

When trying to obtain a better characterization of the Earth's subsurface, it is common to use borehole through-casing resistivity measurements. It is also common for the wells to be surrounded by a metal casing to protect the well and avoid possible collapses. The presence of this metal case highly complicates the numeric simulation of the problem due to the high conductivity of the casing compared to the conductivity of the rock formations. In this study [47] we present an application of some theoretical asymptotic methods in order to deal with complex borehole scenarios like cased wells. The main idea consists in replacing the part of the domain related to the casing by a transmission impedance condition. The small thickness of the casing makes it ideal to apply this kind of mathematical technique. When eliminating the casing from the computational domain, the computational cost of the problems considerably decreases, while the effect of the casing does not disappear due to the impedance transmission conditions. The results show that when applying an order three impedance boundary condition for a simplified domain, it only generates a negligible approximation error, while it considerably reduces the computational cost. For obtaining the numerical results and testing the mathematical models we have developed a Finite Element Code in Matlab. The code works with Lagrange polynomials of any degree as basis functions and triangular shaped elements in two dimensions. The code has been adapted for working with the transmission impedance conditions required by the mathematical models.

Modeling the propagation of ultrashort laser pulses in optical fibers.

Participants : Mohamed Andjar, Juliette Chabassier, Marc Duruflé.

In order to model the propagation of an ultrashort laser pulse, the most natural idea is to solve Maxwell's equations in a nonlinear and dispersive medium. Given the considered optical periods (around 10-14 seconds), the associated wavelengthes (around 1 millimeter) and the propagation distances (several meters), the direct numerical simulation of these equations by usual numerical techniques (finite elements, explicit time schemes) is impossible because too expensive. The standard procedure is therefore to use approached equations obtained by exploiting legitimate hypotheses in the considered context (slowly varying pulse envelope, narrow spectrum, paraxial approximation ...). These new equations, among them the Nonlinear Schrödinger Equation, are significantly less expensive to solve and we can therefore provide realistic numerical simulations to physicists.

When the pulse propagates in an optical fiber, its spatial profile in the orthogonal plane to the propagation direction in very simple because optical fibers posses a finite (small, often equal to one) number of propagating modes. The equations that originally are stated on a 3D domain can then be written as one spatial dimension equations.

The scientific objective of this internship was to apply the approximation techniques mentioned above in this specific context, in order to obtain one or several equations (depending on the used hypotheses) that model the propagation of ultrashort laser pulses in optical fibers. A matlab code has been developed and integrated in the C++ code Montjoie  5.2 . Numerical simulations have been led in order to observe classical situations of nonlinear fiber optics (Kerr effect, Raman effect, supercontinuum generation, ...).

Small heterogeneities in the context of time-domain wave propagation equation : asymptotic analysis and numerical calculation

Participants : Vanessa Mattesi, Sébastien Tordeux.

We have focused our attention on the modeling of heterogeneities which are smaller than the wavelength. The work can be decomposed into two parts : a theoretical one and a numerical one. In the theoretical one, we derive a matched asymptotic expansion composed of a far-field expansion and a near-field expansion. The terms of the far-field expansion are singular solutions of the wave equation whereas the terms of the near-field expansion satisfy quasistatic problems. These expansions are matched in an intermediate region. We justify mathematically this theory by proving error estimates. In the numerical part, we describe the Discontinuous Galerkin method, a local time stepping method and the implementation of the matched asymptotic method. Numerical simulations illustrate these results. Vanessa Mattesi has defended her PhD on this topic[14] .

Theoretical and numerical investigations of acoustic response of a multiperforated plate for combustion liners

Participants : Vincent Popie, Estelle Piot, Sébastien Tordeux.

Multiperforated plates are used in combustion chambers for film cooling purpose. As the knowledge of the acoustic response of the chamber is essential for preventing combustion instabilities, the acoustic behaviour of the perforated plates has to be modeled. This can be done either by considering the transmission impedance of the plates, or their Rayleigh conductivity.

We have investigated the link between these two quantities thanks to matched asymptotic expansions. Especially the far-field or near-field nature of the physical quantities used in the definition of the impedance and Rayleigh quantity has been enlightened. Direct numerical simulations of the propagation of an acoustic plane wave through a perforated plate are performed and post-treated so that the assumptions underlying the definitions of impedance and Rayleigh conductivity have been checked. The results will be presented at the conference ASME Turbo Expo 2015.