Section: New Results
ComponentBased Architectures for OntheFly Verification
PropertyDependent Reductions for the Modal MuCalculus
Participant : Radu Mateescu.
In collaboration with Anton Wijs (Technical University of Eindhoven), we proposed a new method for enhancing the performance of model checking a temporal formula on an LTS by reducing the LTS as much as possible depending on the formula prior to (or simultaneously with) the verification. Given an LTS and a formula, the method consists of two steps:

The maximal set of actions that one can hide (i.e., rename into the internal action $\tau $) in the LTS without disturbing the interpretation of the formula is computed, and those actions are hidden in the LTS. This works for any formula of the full modal $\mu $calculus (i.e., of arbitrary alternation depth) and provides the highest potential for reducing the LTS, and hence for improving verification performance, w.r.t. that formula.

The LTS is reduced modulo an equivalence relation preserving the formula. The reduction can be done before verification, either by constructing the LTS explicitly and using the direct minimization features provided by the BCG_MIN tool, or by constructing the minimized LTS incrementally using the compositional verification features provided by EXP.OPEN and SVL. The reduction can be also done simultaneously during verification, by detecting $\tau $confluent transitions and prioritizing them against their neighbors.
We defined a $\mu $calculus fragment, named L$\mu $dsbr, and shown its adequacy w.r.t. divergencesensitive branching bisimulation (divbranching for short). We also shown that L$\mu $dsbr is equally expressive to the $\mu $ACTL$\setminus $X logic, an extension of ACTL$\setminus $X (Actionbased CTL without the next time operator) with fixed point operators [39] , [40] . This result also implies the adequacy w.r.t. divbranching of $\mu $ACTL$\setminus $X, which was previously shown to be adequate w.r.t. strong bisimulation.
We experimented our method using the EVALUATOR model checker on various examples of protocols and distributed systems, by specifying the temporal properties in MCL and reducing the LTSs modulo strong and divbranching bisimulation. The experiments showed performance enhancements both in execution time (reduction by a factor 4 for strong bisimulation and 20 for divbranching) and memory consumption (reduction by a factor 2 for strong bisimulation and 5 for divbranching).
We also built a prototype MCL library regrouping the temporal operators of ACTL$\setminus $X (which were already present in CADP) and the modal and temporal operators of L$\mu $dsbr (which were newly added). Used in conjunction with the Boolean and fixed point operators of MCL, the operators of this library can be used to specify temporal formulas adequate w.r.t. divbranching, which allows one to reduce the LTS modulo this equivalence (after applying maximal hiding) and to increase the performance of verification accordingly. An article has been published in an international journal [8] .
Compositional Verification
Participants : Hubert Garavel, Frédéric Lang.
The CADP toolbox contains various tools dedicated to compositional verification, among which EXP.OPEN, BCG_MIN, BCG_CMP, and SVL play a central role. EXP.OPEN explores on the fly the graph corresponding to a network of communicating automata (represented as a set of BCG files). BCG_MIN and BCG_CMP respectively minimize and compare behavior graphs modulo strong or branching bisimulation and their stochastic extensions. SVL (Script Verification Language) is both a highlevel language for expressing complex verification scenarios and a compiler dedicated to this language.
In 2014, we corrected 2 bugs in EXP.OPEN, 6 bugs in BCG_MIN and BCG_CMP, and 5 bugs in SVL. We also enhanced these tools as follows:

We corrected the diagnostic generation algorithm of BCG_CMP, which sometimes generated irrelevant diagnostics.

We improved the messages displayed by SVL and EXP.OPEN when generating an LTS from a composition expression using the smart reduction strategy [38] , so that the user can follow more easily the selected composition order.

Following the recent progress made on the development of the language LNT (see § 6.1 ), the syntax of the SVL and EXP languages for comments, gate typing, and the “par ”, “hide ”, “rename ”, “cut ”, and “prio ” operators was extended to be compatible with the syntax of LNT. This enables composition expressions (including comments, channel typing, etc.) copied from LNT programs to be pasted in SVL scripts while requiring as few syntactic changes as possible.

The “verify ” operator has been generalized to give access to all three model checkers of CADP (EVALUATOR 3, EVALUATOR 4, and XTL). A new statement “= ” has been added to SVL, which enables MCL and XTL formulas to be directly written in an SVL script, rather than being stored in external files.

To provide for requirements expression and traceability in SVL, we introduced two new statements, “property ” and “check ”, which increase the readability and good structure of SVL scripts by allowing to define and verify properties, each of which is given a name, instantiable parameters, an informal textual description, and (optionally) an expected truth value.

We updated several demo examples of CADP in order to illustrate the above extensions.
OntheFly Test Generation
Participants : Hubert Garavel, Radu Mateescu, Wendelin Serwe.
In the context of the collaboration with STMicroelectronics, we study techniques for testing if a (hardware) implementation is conform to a formal model described in LNT. Our approach is inspired by the theory of conformance testing [62] , as implemented for instance in TGV [53] and JTorX [33] . We have developed two prototype tools to support this approach. The first tool implements a dedicated OPEN/CAESARcompliant compiler for the particular asymmetric synchronous product between the model and the test purpose. The second tool, based on slightly extended generic components for graph manipulation ($\tau $compression, $\tau $confluence reduction, determinization) and resolution of Boolean equation systems, generates the complete test graph (CTG), which can be used to extract concrete test cases or to drive the test of the implementation. The principal advantage of our approach compared to existing tools is the use of LNT for describing test purposes, which facilitates the manipulation of data values.
In 2014, we developed a third prototype tool that takes as input a CTG and extracts either a single test case (randomly chosen or the first encountered one), or the set of all test cases. This prototype tool was used in the case study with STMicroelectronics (see § 6.5.1 ).
The testgeneration tool TGV has been streamlined by removing some obsolete options and replacing a large part of its code by calls to the standard CADP libraries. TGV has been made faster, it now supports the latest version of the AUT format, and ensures that test purposes provided in the BCG format are deterministic. The manual page has been updated and completed.
Other Component Developments
Participants : Soraya Arias, Hubert Garavel, Frédéric Lang, Radu Mateescu.
The AUT textual format for CADP for storing LTSs was extended to support recent languages (such as LNT and the PseuCo language developed at Saarland University) that manipulate characterstring values. The AUT format, which was defined in the late 80s, did not support such values. A new version 2014 of the AUT format has been defined, which solves this problem and maintains backward compatibility. All the CADP tools that read or write AUT files have been updated accordingly.
The BCG format of CADP for storing LTSs has been upgraded with the advent of a new version 1.2, which replaces version 1.1 released in 2009. New predefined types have been added to BCG to express the difference between unsigned and signed integers, and between character strings and untyped rawdata values. The new version of the BCG format is also more compact and now uses variablelength encoding for strings. The rules for label parsing of the BCG_WRITE interface have been extended, and BCG_IO now supports version 2014 of the AUT format. The intrinsic difficulty of these changes was to preserve the backward compatibility with the BCG files generated over the last twenty years.
To simplify the installation of CADP on Windows systems, we studied an alternative execution environment based on Gnuwin32 and MinGW/Msys rather than Cygwin. Preliminary changes have been brought to CADP scripts to undertake such a migration.