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Section: New Results

Parallel and Distributed Verification

Manipulation of Partitioned LTSs

Participants : Hubert Garavel, Radu Mateescu, Wendelin Serwe.

For distributed verification, CADP provides the PBG format, which implements the theoretical concept of Partitioned LTS [45] and provides a unified access to an LTS distributed over a set of remote machines.

In 2013, we continued the development of the prototype tool PBG_OPEN, which is an OPEN/CAESAR-compliant compiler for the PBG format, enabling the use of all CADP on-the-fly verification tools on a partitioned LTS. The main advantage of PBG_OPEN is that it can use the memory of several machines to store the transition relation of a partitioned LTS. Therefore, PBG_OPEN can explore on-the-fly large partitioned LTSs that could not be explored using other tool combinations. To reduce the amount of communications, PBG_OPEN can use a cache to store already encountered states, together with their outgoing transitions.

We also developed another prototype tool, named PBG_INVERT, which changes the storage of the transitions of a partitioned LTS, transforming a partitioned LTS where each fragment stores the transitions leading to the states of the fragment (as generated by DISTRIBUTOR) into a partitioned LTS where each fragment stores the transitions going out from the states of the fragment. Adding this transformation step yields a reduction of up to 25% of the overall execution time, when verifying the partitioned LTS with PBG_OPEN. We experimented all these tools on the Grid'5000 computing infrastructure  [31] using up to 512 distributed processes. These experiments confirmed the good scalability of our distributed LTS manipulation approach. A paper describing this work has been published in an international conference [13] .

Distributed Code Generation for LNT

Participants : Hugues Evrard, Frédéric Lang.

Rigorous development and prototyping of a distributed verification algorithm in LNT involves the automatic generation of a distributed implementation. For the latter, a protocol realizing process synchronization is required. As far as possible, this protocol must itself be distributed, so as to avoid the bottleneck that would inevitably arise if a unique process would have to manage all synchronizations in the system. A particularity of such a protocol is its ability to support branching synchronizations, corresponding to situations where a process may offer a choice of synchronizing actions (which themselves may nondeterministically involve several sets of synchronizing processes) instead of a single one. Therefore, a classical barrier protocol is not sufficient and a more elaborate synchronization protocol is needed.

In 2013, we formally modelled and verified several existing synchronization protocols. This revealed an error in one of them, which led to a publication in an international conference [12] . Based on this study, we selected a suitable protocol and adapted it to the LNT synchronization operators.

Using this protocol, we developed a prototype distributed code generator, taking as input the model of a distributed system, described as a set of LNT processes and their parallel composition written in EXP. The LNT.OPEN and CAESAR tools are used to obtain the sequential implementation of each LNT process, and the EXP.OPEN tool is used to compute the possible interactions between processes. Then, our prototype generates the corresponding implementation of the distributed synchronization protocol and all necessary glue code between processes and the protocol. Our prototype automatically performs all these steps, such that a complete and runnable distributed implementation can easily be obtained from the original model.

So far, our prototype manages synchronizations with no data or data of enumerated types only, in which case the implementation checks that data values and types match before allowing a synchronization.