## Section:
Scientific Foundations2>
### Distributed systems3>

Participants : Cécile Germain-Renaud [correspondent] , Philippe Caillou, Dawei Feng, Nadjib Lazaar, Michèle Sebag.

The DIS-SIG explores the issues related to modeling and optimizing distributed systems, ranging from very large scale computational grids to multi-agent systems and distributed constraint solvers.

- Coping with non-stationarity.
Most existing work on modeling the dynamics of grid behavior assumes a steady-state system and concludes to some form of long-range dependence (slowly decaying correlation) in the associated time-series. But the physical (economic and sociological) processes governing the grid behavior dispel the stationarity hypothesis. When the behavior can be modeled as a time series, an appealing class of models is a sequence of stationary processes separated by break points.The optimisation problem for structural break detection is difficult, because of high dimensionality and a complex objective function. Then, evolutionary algorithms are a method of choice. [15] revisits the optimisation strategy in the light of the general advances in evolutionary computation and the specific opportunities for a separable representation. The single-level optimisation problem is decoupled into a bilevel optimisation. The upper level is the problem of finding the optimal number and location of the break points. The lower level optimises the autoregressive models given the number and locations of break points. At the upper level, our optimisation strategy exploits the state-of-the-art CMA-ES (Covariance Matrix Adaptation - Evolutionary Strategy) instead of the relatively straightforward Genetic Algorithm proposed in the classic AutoPARM fitting procedure for non-stationary time series. The associated representation addresses an important shortcoming of : the distance in the chromosomes space better maps to the distance in the model space. Furthermore, the representation becomes scalable. More precisely, it scales linearly with the length of the data set, independently of the cost of the objective function.

- Fault management.
Isolating users from the inevitable faults in large distributed systems is critical to Quality of Experience. Thus a significant part of the software infrastructure of large scale distributed systems collects information that will be exploited to discover if, where, and when the system is faulty. In the context of end-to-end probing as the class of monitoring techniques, minimizing the number of probes for a given discovery performance target is critical. While detection and diagnosis have the obvious advantage of providing an explanation of the failure, by exhibiting culprits, they strongly rely on a priori knowledge that is not available for massively distributed systems. Thus [39] , [62] formulates the problem of probe selection for fault prediction based on end-to-end probing as a Collaborative Prediction (CP) problem, based on the reasonable assumption of an underlying factorial model. On an extensive experimental dataset from the EGI grid, the combination of the Maximum Margin Matrix Factorization approach to CP and Active Learning shows excellent performance, reducing the number of probes typically by 80% to 90%.

- Multi-agent and games.
The main research focus concerning multi-agent systems was on the observation and automatic description of multi-agent based simulations. Whereas usual parameter space exploration systems observe several experiments, the increasing complexity of simulations makes it harder to understand and describe what happens during a single experiment. It is simple to define global indicators to have an overview of the simulation or to follow individual agents, but the most interesting phenomena often occur at an intermediate level, where

*groups of agents*are found. The group level is also suited to analyse and display the dynamics of the model. The online and agent-oriented analysis was achieved and its statistical soundness was assessed [6] . In collaboration with the CEA LIST laboratory, we developed a generic tool (SimAnalyer), which can be used online (with NetLogo) of offline (with Logs) to identify, describe, follow [33] and reproduce [58] clusters of agents in a simulation. To select the most interesting clusters and descriptive variables, new activity indicators reflecting the simulation dynamics have been designed [13] .- Parallel SAT Solving.
Recent Parallel SAT solvers use the so-called Conflict-Directed Clause Learning to exchange clauses between the different cores. However, when the number of cores increases, systematic clause sharing leads to communication saturation. Nadjib Lazaar's post-doc, funded by the Microsoft-Inria joint lab, investigated how the communication topology can be optimized online using a Multi-Armed Bandit setting [68] , with an improvement of circa 10% (in number of problems solved) and over 50% (in computational time) over ManySAT 2.0, on the 2012 SAT and UNSAT problem suite.