## Section:
New Results2>
### Finite element and finite volume methods3>
#### Control in fluid mechanics4>

#### Control in fluid mechanics4>

Recently, open and closed active flow control were carried out in order to study the flow behavior over a backward-facing step in a transitional regime. It was done either by a global frequency destabilization at the entry of the domain, or by a local blowing or suction through the lower and upper parts of the step by the use of small jets ( [58] , E. Creusé, A. Giovannini (IMFT Toulouse) and I. Mortazavi (MC2 Inria EPI, Bordeaux)). The numerical computations were based on a vortex-in-cell method. Such controls were shown to be efficient in reducing the average recirculation length value, the global flow energy, as well as the global flow enstrophy. We have now in mind to apply such a strategy on cavity-stent flows, in order to study the effect of passive and/or active control on the average emptying time of the cavity, corresponding to a lot of possible industrial or health applications (combustion, blood circulation in arteries,...).

Passive as well as active control were also performed on the "Ahmed body geometry", which can be considered as a first approximation of a vehicle profile. This work was carried out in collaboration with the EPI Inria MC2 team in Bordeaux (C.H. Bruneau, I. Mortazavi and D. Depeyras), as well as with Renault car industry (P. Gillieron). We recently combined active and passive control strategies in order to reach efficient results, especially concerning the drag coefficient, for two and three dimensional simulations [51] . We recently worked on a rear-window configuration of the Ahmed body, for which the 3D-effects are very important and have to be considered in the numerical simulations [9] . Moreover, the effect of the vortices dynamics on the drag coefficient of a square Ahmed body was adressed [53] , as well as the impact of several Ahmed bodies on the same road [52] .

In another field of applications, a work was performed with the TEMPO Laboratory of Valenciennes. The objective of this collaboration was to study the pressure wave generated by high-speed trains entering tunnels in order to improve the shape of the tunnel sections.

#### Numerical Methods for viscous flows4>

In the case of compressible models, as the Euler equations, a careful analysis of sharp and practical stability conditions to ensure the positivity of both density and pressure variables was performed [11] . We are also concerned with the numerical simulation of certain multi-fluids flows, which in particular arises in the modelling of powderﾐsnow avalanches. The hybrid scheme works on unstructured meshes and can be advantageously coupled to mesh refinements strategies in order to follow fronts of high density variation [38] . In order to answer these questions, we have developed a MATLAB code (NS2DDV-M, see the softwares section), a Fortran code and a C++ code.

#### A posteriori error estimators for finite element methods4>

A recent work, in collaboration with S. Nicaise (LAMAV, Valenciennes), was devoted to the derivation of some so-called "reconstruction estimators" based on gradient averaging, in order to provide lower and upper bounds of the error arising from a discontinuous Galerkin approximation of a diffusion problem [59] .

At the same time, some equilibrated-type estimators were developed for the Reissner-Mindlin system arising in solid mechanics applications, for conforming and locking-free approximations, in the context of the PhD. of É. Verhille.

At last, a collaboration with the "Laboratoire d'électrotechnique et d'électronique de puissance de Lille (L2EP)" began two years ago, to derive a residual-based a posteriori error estimator for the Maxwell system in its vectorial and scalar potential formulation (PhD of Z. Tang). The objective was to obtain a mathematical rigorous error indicator, in order to couple it with the automatic mesh generator used by EDF for very practical issues.

Some residual-type a posteriori error estimators were developed in the context of magnetostatic and magnetodynamic Maxwell equations, given in their potential and harmonic formulations. Here, the task was to found a relevant decomposition of the error in order to obtain the reliability of the estimator, with the use of ad-hoc interpolations. This work was realized in collaboration with the L2EP Laboratory (Laboratoire d'Electrotechnique et d'Electronique de Puissance de Lille, Lille 1 University), and gave rise to several contributions [17] , [18] , [32] , [31] , [65] , obtained in the context of the Ph-D thesis of Zuqi Tang [2] . Then, other results about reconstructed a posteriori error estimators were obtained for Discontinuous Galerkin methods, applied to convection-reaction-diffusion equations [16] .