## Section:
New Results2>
### Applications3>
#### Signal Processing4>

#### Signal Processing4>

**Dirichlet Process Mixtures for Density Estimation in Dynamic Nonlinear Modeling: Application to GPS Positioning in Urban Canyons [19] **

In global positioning systems (GPS), classical localization algorithms assume, when the signal is received from the satellite in line-of-sight (LOS) environment, that the pseudorange error distribution is Gaussian. Such assumption is in some way very restrictive since a random error in the pseudorange measure with an unknown distribution form is always induced in constrained environments especially in urban canyons due to multipath/masking effects. In order to ensure high accuracy positioning, a good estimation of the observation error in these cases is required. To address this, an attractive flexible Bayesian nonparametric noise model based on Dirichlet process mixtures (DPM) is introduced. Since the considered positioning problem involves elements of non-Gaussianity and nonlinearity and besides, it should be processed on-line, the suitability of the proposed modeling scheme in a joint state/parameter estimation problem is handled by an efficient Rao-Blackwellized particle filter (RBPF). Our approach is illustrated on a data analysis task dealing with joint estimation of vehicles positions and pseudorange errors in a global navigation satellite system (GNSS)-based localization context where the GPS information may be inaccurate because of hard reception conditions.

**Dislocation detection in field environments: A belief functions contribution [20] **

Dislocation is defined as the change between discrete sequential locations of critical items in field environments such as large construction projects. Dislocations on large sites of materials and critical items for which discrete time position estimates are available represent critical state changes. The ability to detect dislocations automatically for tens of thousands of items can ultimately improve project performance significantly. Detecting these dislocations in a noisy information environment where low cost radio frequency identification tags are attached to each piece of material, and the material is moved sometimes only a few meters, is the main focus of this study. We propose in this paper a method developed in the frame of belief functions to detect dislocations. The belief function framework is well-suited for such a problem where both uncertainty and imprecision are inherent to the problem. We also show how to deal with the calculations. This method has been implemented in a controlled experimental setting. The results of these experiments show the ability of the proposed method to detect materials dislocation over the site reliably. Broader application of this approach to both animate and inanimate objects is possible.

**Towards dictionary learning from images with non Gaussian noise [29] **

We address the problem of image dictionary learning from noisy images with non Gaussian noise. This problem is difficult. As a first step, we consider the extreme sparse code given by vector quantization, i.e. each pixel is finally associated to 1 single atom. For Gaussian noise, the natural solution is K-means clustering using the sum of the squares of differences between gray levels as the dissimilarity measure between patches. For non Gaussian noises (Poisson, Gamma,...), a new measure of dissimilarity between noisy patches is necessary. We study the use of the generalized likelihood ratios (GLR) recently introduced by Deledalle et al. 2012 to compare non Gaussian noisy patches. We propose a K-medoids algorithm generalizing the usual Linde-Buzo-Gray K-means using the GLR based dissimilarity measure. We obtain a vector quantization which provides a dictionary that can be very large and redundant. We illustrate our approach by dictionaries learnt from images featuring non Gaussian noise, and present preliminary denoising results.

#### Medical Applications4>

**Outlier detection for patient monitoring and alerting. [12] **

We develop and evaluate a data-driven approach for detecting unusual (anomalous) patient-management decisions using past patient cases stored in electronic health records (EHRs). Our hypothesis is that a patient-management decision that is unusual with respect to past patient care may be due to an error and that it is worthwhile to generate an alert if such a decision is encountered. We evaluate this hypothesis using data obtained from EHRs of 4486 post-cardiac surgical patients and a subset of 222 alerts generated from the data. We base the evaluation on the opinions of a panel of experts. The results of the study support our hypothesis that the outlier-based alerting can lead to promising true alert rates. We observed true alert rates that ranged from to for a variety of patient-management actions, with corresponding to the strongest outliers.

#### Web Mining4>

**Managing advertising campaigns – an approximate planning approach [11] **

We consider the problem of displaying commercial advertisements on web pages, in the “cost per click” model. The advertisement server has to learn the appeal of each type of visitor for the different advertisements in order to maximize the profit. Advertisements have constraints such as a certain number of clicks to draw, as well as a lifetime. This problem is thus inherently dynamic, and intimately combines combinatorial and statistical issues. To set the stage, it is also noteworthy that we deal with very rare events of interest, since the base probability of one click is in the order of . Different approaches may be thought of, ranging from computationally demanding ones (use of Markov decision processes, or stochastic programming) to very fast ones.We introduce NOSEED, an adaptive policy learning algorithm based on a combination of linear programming and multi-arm bandits. We also propose a way to evaluate the extent to which we have to handle the constraints (which is directly related to the computation cost). We investigate the performance of our system through simulations on a realistic model designed with an important commercial web actor.

**ICML Exploration & Exploitation challenge: Keep it simple! [18] **

Recommendation has become a key feature in the economy of a lot of companies (online shopping, search engines...). There is a lot of work going on regarding recommender systems and there is still a lot to do to improve them. Indeed nowadays in many companies most of the job is done by hand. Moreover even when a supposedly smart recommender system is designed, it is hard to evaluate it without using real audience which obviously involves economic issues. The ICML Exploration & Exploitation challenge is an attempt to make people propose efficient recommendation techniques and particularly focuses on limited computational resources. The challenge also proposes a framework to address the problem of evaluating a recommendation algorithm with real data. We took part in this challenge and achieved the best performances; this paper aims at reporting on this achievement; we also discuss the evaluation process and propose a better one for future challenges of the same kind.

#### Games4>

**CLOP: Confident Local Optimization for Noisy Black-Box Parameter Tuning [30] **

Artificial intelligence in games often leads to the problem of parameter tuning. Some heuristics may have coefficients, and they should be tuned to maximize the win rate of the program. A possible approach is to build local quadratic models of the win rate as a function of program parameters. Many local regression algorithms have already been proposed for this task, but they are usually not robust enough to deal automatically and efficiently with very noisy outputs and non-negative Hessians. The CLOP principle, which stands for Confident Local OPtimization, is a new approach to local regression that overcomes all these problems in a simple and efficient way. CLOP discards samples whose estimated value is confidently inferior to the mean of all samples. Experiments demonstrate that, when the function to be optimized is smooth, this method outperforms all other tested algorithms.