## Section:
New Results2>
### Statistical Analysis of Time Series3>
#### Prediction of Sequences of Structured and Unstructured Data4>

#### Prediction of Sequences of Structured and Unstructured Data4>

**Reducing statistical time-series problems to binary classification [45] **

We show how binary classification methods developed to work on i.i.d. data can be used for solving statistical problems that are seemingly unrelated to classification and concern highly-dependent time series. Specifically, the problems of time-series clustering, homogeneity testing and the three-sample problem are addressed. The algorithms that we construct for solving these problems are based on a new metric between time-series distributions, which can be evaluated using binary classification methods. Universal consistency of the proposed algorithms is proven under most general assumptions. The theoretical results are illustrated with experiments on synthetic and real-world data.

#### Hypothesis Testing4>

**Testing composite hypotheses about discrete ergodic processes [21] **

Given a discrete-valued sample we wish to decide whether it was generated by a distribution belonging to a family , or it was generated by a distribution belonging to a family . In this work we assume that all distributions are stationary ergodic, and do not make any further assumptions (in particular, no independence or mixing rate assumptions). We find some necessary and some sufficient conditions, formulated in terms of the topological properties of and , for the existence of a consistent test. For the case when is the complement of (to the set of all stationary ergodic processes) these necessary and sufficient conditions coincide, thereby providing a complete characterization of families of processes membership to which can be consistently tested, against their complement, based on sampling. This criterion includes as special cases several known and some new results on testing for membership to various parametric families, as well as testing identity, independence, and other hypotheses.

**Uniform hypothesis testing for finite-valued stationary processes [22] **

Given a discrete-valued sample we wish to decide whether it was generated by a distribution belonging to a family , or it was generated by a distribution belonging to a family . In this work we assume that all distributions are stationary ergodic, and do not make any further assumptions (e.g. no independence or mixing rate assumptions). We would like to have a test whose probability of error (both Type I and Type II) is uniformly bounded. More precisely, we require that for each there exist a sample size such that probability of error is upper-bounded by for samples longer than . We find some necessary and some sufficient conditions on and under which a consistent test (with this notion of consistency) exists. These conditions are topological, with respect to the topology of distributional distance.

#### Change Point Analysis4>

**Locating Changes in Highly Dependent Data with Unknown Number of Change Points [39] **

The problem of multiple change point estimation is considered for sequences with unknown number of change points. A consistency framework is suggested that is suitable for highly dependent time-series, and an asymptotically consistent algorithm is proposed. In order for the consistency to be established the only assumption required is that the data is generated by stationary ergodic time-series distributions. No modeling, independence or parametric assumptions are made; the data are allowed to be dependent and the dependence can be of arbitrary form. The theoretical results are complemented with experimental evaluations.

#### Clustering Time Series, Online and Offline4>

**Online Clustering of Processes [40] **

The problem of online clustering is considered in the case where each data point is a sequence generated by a stationary ergodic process. Data arrive in an online fashion so that the sample received at every time-step is either a continuation of some previously received sequence or a new sequence. The dependence between the sequences can be arbitrary. No parametric or independence assumptions are made; the only assumption is that the marginal distribution of each sequence is stationary and ergodic. A novel, computationally efficient algorithm is proposed and is shown to be asymptotically consistent (under a natural notion of consistency). The performance of the proposed algorithm is evaluated on simulated data, as well as on real datasets (motion classification).

**Incremental Spectral Clustering with the Normalised Laplacian [52] **

Partitioning a graph into groups of vertices such that those within each group are more densely connected than vertices assigned to different groups, known as graph clustering, is often used to gain insight into the organization of large scale networks and for visualization purposes. Whereas a large number of dedicated techniques have been recently proposed for static graphs, the design of on-line graph clustering methods tailored for evolving networks is a challenging problem, and much less documented in the literature. Motivated by the broad variety of applications concerned, ranging from the study of biological networks to graphs of scientific references through to the exploration of communications networks such as the World Wide Web, it is the main purpose of this paper to introduce a novel, computationally efficient, approach to graph clustering in the evolutionary context. Namely, the method promoted in this article is an incremental eigenvalue solution for the spectral clustering method described by Ng. et al. (2001). Beyond a precise description of its practical implementation and an evaluation of its complexity, its performance is illustrated through numerical experiments, based on datasets modelling the evolution of a HIV epidemic and the purchase history graph of an e-commerce website.

#### Online Semi-Supervised Learning4>

**Learning from a Single Labeled Face and a Stream of Unlabeled Data [41] **

Face recognition from a single image per person is a challenging problem because the training sample is extremely small. We consider a variation of this problem. In our problem, we recognize only one person, and there are no labeled data for any other person. This setting naturally arises in authentication on personal computers and mobile devices, and poses additional challenges because it lacks negative examples. We formalize our problem as one-class classification, and propose and analyze an algorithm that learns a non-parametric model of the face from a single labeled image and a stream of unlabeled data. In many domains, for instance when a person interacts with a computer with a camera, unlabeled data are abundant and easy to utilize. This is the first paper that investigates how these data can help in learning better models in the single-image-per-person setting. Our method is evaluated on a dataset of 43 people and we show that these people can be recognized 90% of time at nearly zero false positives. This recall is 25+% higher than the recall of our best performing baseline. Finally, we conduct a comprehensive sensitivity analysis of our algorithm and provide a guideline for setting its parameters in practice.