## Section:
Scientific Foundations2>
### Frequency domain methods
for the analysis and control of systems governed by PDE's3>

Participants : Xavier Antoine, Bruno Pinçon, Karim Ramdani, Bertrand Thierry.

We use frequency tools to analyze different types of problems. The first one concerns the control, the optimal control and the stabilization of systems governed by pde 's, and their numerical approximations. The second one concerns time-reversal phenomena, while the last one deals with numerical approximation of high-frequency scattering problems.

#### Control and stabilization for skew-adjoint systems 4>

The first area concerns theoretical and numerical aspects in the
control of a class of PDE's. More precisely, in a semigroup
setting, the systems we consider have a skew-adjoint generator.
Classical examples are the wave, the Bernoulli-Euler or the
Schrödinger equations. Our approach is based on an original
characterization of exact controllability of second order
conservative systems proposed by K. Liu [63] . This
characterization can be related to the Hautus criterion in the
theory of finite dimensional systems (cf. [58] ). It
provides for time-dependent problems exact controllability criteria
**that do not depend on time, but depend on the frequency
variable** conjugated to time. Studying the controllability of a
given system amounts then to establishing uniform (with respect to
frequency) estimates. In other words, the problem of exact
controllability for the wave equation, for instance, comes down to a
high-frequency analysis for the Helmholtz operator. This frequency
approach has been proposed first by K. Liu for bounded control
operators (corresponding to internal control problems), and has been
recently extended to the case of unbounded control operators (and
thus including boundary control problems) by L. Miller
[64] .
Using the result of Miller, K. Ramdani, T. Takahashi, M. Tucsnak have obtained in [5] a new spectral formulation of the criterion of Liu [63] , which is valid for boundary control problems. This frequency test can be seen as an observability condition for packets of eigenvectors of the operator. This frequency test has been successfully applied in [5] to study the exact controllability of the Schrödinger equation, the plate equation and the wave equation in a square.
Let us emphasize here that one further important
advantage of this frequency approach lies in the fact that it can
also be used for the analysis of space semi-discretized control
problems (by finite element or finite differences). The estimates to
be proved must then be uniform with respect to **both the
frequency and the mesh size**.

In the case of finite dimensional systems one of the main applications of frequency domain methods consists in designing robust controllers, in particular of type. Obtaining the similar tools for systems governed by PDE's is one of the major challenges in the theory of infinite dimensional systems. The first difficulty which has to be tackled is that, even for very simple PDE systems, no method giving the parametrisation of all stabilizing controllers is available. One of the possible remedies consists in considering known families of stabilizing feedback laws depending on several parameters and in optimizing the norm of an appropriate transfer function with respect to this parameters. Such families of feedback laws yielding computationally tractable optimization problems are now available for systems governed by PDE's in one space dimension.

#### Time-reversal4>

The second area in which we make use of frequency tools is the
analysis of time-reversal for harmonic acoustic waves. This
phenomenon described in Fink [56] is a direct consequence of the
reversibility of the wave equation in a non dissipative medium. It
can be used to **focus an acoustic wave** on a target through a
complex and/or unknown medium. To achieve this, the procedure
followed is quite simple. First, time-reversal mirrors are used to
generate an incident wave that propagates through the medium. Then,
the mirrors measure the acoustic field diffracted by the targets,
time-reverse it and back-propagate it in the medium. Iterating the
scheme, we observe that the incident wave emitted by the mirrors
focuses on the scatterers. An alternative and more original focusing
technique is based on the so-called D.O.R.T. method
[57] . According to this experimental method, the
eigenelements of the time-reversal operator contain important
information on the propagation medium and on the scatterers
contained in it. More precisely, the number of nonzero eigenvalues
is exactly the number of scatterers, while each eigenvector
corresponds to an incident wave that selectively focuses on each
scatterer.

Time-reversal has many applications covering a wide range of fields,
among which we can cite **medicine** (kidney stones destruction or
medical imaging), **sub-marine communication** and **non
destructive testing**. Let us emphasize that in the case of
time-harmonic acoustic waves, time-reversal is equivalent to phase
conjugation and involves the Helmholtz operator.

In [2] , we proposed the first far field model of time reversal in the time-harmonic case.

#### Numerical approximation of high-frequency scattering problems4>

This subject deals mainly with the numerical solution of the Helmholtz or Maxwell equations for open region scattering problems. This kind of situation can be met e.g. in radar systems in electromagnetism or in acoustics for the detection of underwater objects like submarines.

Two particular difficulties are considered in this situation

the wavelength of the incident signal is small compared to the characteristic size of the scatterer,

These two problematics limit the application range of most common numerical techniques. The aim of this part is to develop new numerical simulation techniques based on microlocal analysis for modeling the propagation of rays. The importance of microlocal techniques in this situation is that it makes possible a local analysis both in the spatial and frequency domain. Therefore, it can be seen as a kind of asymptotic theory of rays which can be combined with numerical approximation techniques like boundary element methods. The resulting method is called the On-Surface Radiation Condition method.