## Section:
New Results2>
### Mining for Knowledge Discovery in Information Systems3>
#### Clustering on Multiple Dissimilarity Matrices4>

#### Clustering on Multiple Dissimilarity Matrices4>

Participants : Yves Lechevallier, F.A.T. de Carvalho, Guillaume Pilot, Brigitte Trousse.

In [17] , we introduce hard clustering algorithms that are able to partitioning objects taking into account simultaneously their relational descriptions (relations + values) given by multiple dissimilarity matrices. The aim is to obtain a collaborative role of the different dissimilarity matrices in order to obtain a final consensus partition. These matrices could have been generated using different sets of variables and a fixed dissimilarity function or using a fixed set of variables and different dissimilarity functions, or using different sets of variables and dissimilarity functions.

During 2012 we show interest and disadvantages of these approaches to classifying curves with a Urso and Vichi distance based on the mathematical properties of curves (first derivative and second). The curves are issued from temperature sensors placed in 40 offices during one year (See section 8.1.3 ). This period was divided into the periods before and after challenge and the challenge period. During the challenge period the occupants had information by bonus / malus messages on energy consumption [34] .

#### Web Page Clustering based on a Community Detection Algorithm4>

Participants : Yves Lechevallier, Yacine Slimani.

Extracting knowledge from Web user's access data in Web Usage Mining (WUM) process is a challenging task that is continuing to gain importance as the size of the Web and its user-base increase. That is why meaningful methods have been proposed in the literature in order to understand the behaviour of the user in the Web and improve the access modes to information. We pursued our previous work [102] and defined a new approach of knowledge extraction using graph theory. which is described in [29] .

This work is done in collaboration with the laboratory LRIA At the Ferhat Abbas University, Sétif, Algérie.

#### Multi-criteria Clustering with Weighted Tchebycheff Distances for Relational Data 4>

Participants : F.A.T. de Carvalho, Yves Lechevallier.

The method described in [27] uses a nonlinear aggregation criterion, weighted Tchebycheff distances, more appropriate than linear combinations (such as weighted averages) for the construction of compromise solutions. We obtain a partition of the set of objects, the prototype of each cluster and a weight vector that indicates the relevance of each criterion in each cluster. Since this is a clustering algorithm for relational data, it is compatible with any distance function used to measure the dissimilarity between objects.

#### Knowledge management in Multi-View KDD Process4>

Participant : Brigitte Trousse.

E.L. Moukhtar Zemmouri, in the context of his PhD thesis supervised by Hicham Behja, A. Marzark and B. Trousse pursued his work based on a Viewpoint Model in the context of a KDD process [30] , [19] .

Knowledge Discovery in Databases (KDD) is a highly complex, iterative and interactive process aimed at the extraction of previously unknown, potentially useful, and ultimately understandable patterns from data. In practice, a KDD process (data mining project according to CRISP-DM vocabulary) involves several actors (domain experts, data analysts, KDD experts, etc.) each with a particular viewpoint. We define a multi-view analysis as a KDD process held by several experts who analyze the same data with different viewpoints.

We propose to support users of multi-view analysis through the development of a set of semantic models to manage knowledge involved during such an analysis. Our objective is to enhance both the reusability of the process and coordination between users.

To do so, we propose first a formalization of viewpoint in KDD and a Knowledge Model that is “a specification of the information and knowledge structures and functions involved during a multi-view analysis”. Our formalization, using OWL ontologies, of viewpoint notion is based on CRISP-DM standard through the identification of a set of generic criteria that characterize a viewpoint in KDD. Once instantiated, these criteria define an analyst viewpoint. This viewpoint will guide the execution of the KDD process, and then keep trace of reasoning and major decisions made by the analyst.

Then, to formalize interaction and interdependence between various analyses according to different viewpoints, we propose a set of semantic relations between viewpoints based on goal-driven analysis. We have defined equivalence, inclusion, conflict, and requirement relations. These relations allow us to enhance coordination, knowledge sharing and mutual understanding between different actors of a multi-view analysis, and reusability in terms of viewpoint of successful data mining experiences within an organization.

#### Critical Edition of Sanskrit Texts4>

Participants : Yves Lechevallier [correspondant] , Marc Csernel, Ehab Assan.

With the help of Ehab Assan we improved the prototype made last year by Nicolas Bèchet (cf. 2011 AxIS activity report,[21] ). It is now included in the construction process of critical editions of Sanskrit texts. Ehab also added LaTeX output to the process, we now have paper as well as Web output. It was possible to present these new features [33] , [36] at the 13th International Conference on Intelligent Text Processing and Computational Linguistics (CICLing) in Delhi.

#### Construction and Settlement of hierarchical Structures of Concepts in E-tourism4>

Participant : Yves Lechevallier.

The work of Nicolas Bechet (AxIS member in 2011) and Yves Lechevallier in collaboration with Marie-Aude Aufaure (Ecole Centrale de Paris), was published in 2012 [20] related to a method for the construction and the automatic settlement of hierarchical structures of concepts. We were particularly interested in the construction of a hierarchical structure of services offered in Hotels from a data set of an application in the field of e-tourism motivated by our contacts with the SME Addictrip. The goal is to associate to each service a concept that provides a common representation of all services. Our experiments are carried out using resources from partners specialized in online hotel booking, in particular from Addictrip. The establishment of a structure of concepts is essential to these partners that use their own terminologies description of hotel services. Indeed it provides a common representation space allowing the comparison of service coming from different resources. Our approach is based on proximity of literal terms in the service having a nearby measure based on n-grams of characters. The results during our experiments show the quality of this approach and its limitations.