Project Team Regal

Members
Overall Objectives
Scientific Foundations
Application Domains
Software
New Results
Partnerships and Cooperations
Dissemination
Bibliography
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Section: New Results

Peer-to-peer systems

Participants : Pierre Sens [correspondent] , Nicolas Hidalgo, Sergey Legtchenko, Olivier Marin, Sébastien Monnet, Gilles Muller, Maria Potop-Butucaru, Mathieu Valero.

Peer-to-peer storage

Distributed Hash Table (DHTs) provide a means to build a completely decentralized, large-scale persistent storage service from the individual storage capacities contributed by each node of the peer-to-peer overlay. However, persistence can only be achieved if nodes are highly available, that is, if they stay most of the time connected to the overlay. Churn (i.e., nodes connecting and disconnecting from the overlay) in peer-to-peer networks is mainly due to the fact that users have total control on theirs computers, and thus may not see any benefit in keeping its peer-to-peer client running all the time.

When connection/disconnection frequency is too high in the system, data-blocks may be lost. This is true for most current DHT-based system's implementations. To avoid this problem, it is necessary to build really efficient replication and maintenance mechanisms. Since 2008 we study the effect of churn on an existing DHT-based P2P system namely PAST/Pastry. We have proposed RelaxDHT [25] , a churn-resilient peer-to-peer DHT. RelaxDHT proposes an enhanced replication strategy with relaxed placement constraints, avoiding useless data transfers and improving transfer parallelization. This new replication strategy is able to cut down by 2 the number of data-block losses compared to PAST DHT. We are now starting to study the use of erasure coding mechanisms along with replication within DHTs. Our goal is to propose hybrid mechanisms to find a good tradeoff among 1) churn-resilience, 2) maintenance cost, and 3) storage space.

Overlays

Large-scale distributed systems gather thousands of peers spread all over the world. Such systems need to offer good routing performances regardless of their size and despite high churn rates. To achieve that requirement, the system must add appropriate shortcuts to its logical graph (overlay). However, to choose efficient shortcuts, peers need to obtain information about the overlay topology. In case of heterogeneous peer distributions, retrieving such information is not straightforward. Moreover, due to churn, the topology rapidly evolves, making gathered information obsolete. State of- the-art systems either avoid the problem by enforcing peers to adopt a uniform distribution or only partially fulfill these requirements. To cope with this problem, we propose DONUT [47] , a mechanism to build a local map that approximates the peer distribution, allowing the peer to accurately estimate graph distance to other peers with a local algorithm. The evaluation performed with real latency and churn traces shows that our map increases the routing process efficiency by at least 20% compared to the state-of-the-art techniques. It points out that each map is lightweight and can be efficiently propagated through the network by consuming less than 10 bps on each peer.

Distributed trees

Publish/Subscribe implemented on top of distributed R-trees (DR-trees) overlays offer efficient DHT-free communication primitives. We have then extend the distributed R-trees (DR-trees) in order to reduce event delivery latency in order to meet the requirements of massively distributed video games such that pertinent information is quickly distributed to all the interested parties without degrading the load of nodes neither increasing the number of noisy events. In 2011, we explore how to improve robustness of distributed trees. Since each single crash can potentially break the tree structure connectivity, DR-trees are crash-sensitivite. We this have proposed a fault tolerant approach which exploits replication of non leaf nodes in order to ensure the tree connectivity in presence of crashes. This work will be published in [56] .

In [85] , we consider a complete binary tree and construct a random pairing between leaf nodes and internal nodes. We prove that the graph obtained by contracting all pairs (leaf-internal nodes) achieves a constant node expansion with high probability. In the context of P2P overlays our result can be interpreted as follows: if each physical node participating to the tree overlay manages a random pair that couples one virtual internal node and one virtual leaf node then the physical-node layer exhibits a constant expansion with high probability which improves the robustness of the overlay.

Complex query over peer-to-peer networks

A major limitation of DHTs is that they only support exact-match queries. In order to offer range queries over a DHT it is necessary to build additional indexing structures. Prefix-based indexes, such as Prefix Hash Tree (PHT), are interesting approaches for building distributed indexes on top of DHTs. Nevertheless, the lookup operation of these indexes usually generates a high amount of unnecessary traffic overhead which degrades system performance by increasing response time. In [42] , we propose a novel distributed cache system called Tabu Prefix Table Cache (TPT-C), aiming at improving the performance of the Prefix-trees. We have implemented our solution over PHT, and the results confirm that our searching approach reduces up to a 70% the search latency and traffic overhead. In [44] , we propose DRing an efficient layered solution that directly supports range queries over a ring-like DHT structure. We improve load balancing by using only the nodes that store data, and by updating neighbour information through an optimistic approach.

Trust management in peer-to-peer networks

An ongoing research work focuses on trust assessment in dynamic systems. Even if it is near impossible to fully trust a node in a P2P system, managing a set of the most trusted nodes in the system can help to implement more trusted and reliable services. Using these nodes can reduce the probability of introducing malicious nodes in distributed computations. Our work aims at the following objectives: 1. To design a distributed membership algorithm for structured Peer to Peer networks in order to build a group of trusted nodes. 2. To design a maintenance algorithm to periodically clean the trusted group so as to avoid nodes whose reputation has decreased under the minimum value. 3. To provide a way for a given node X to find at least one trusted node. 4. To design a prototype of an information system, such as a news dissemination system, that relies on the trusted group. In 2011, we propose the CORPS system for building a community of reputable peers in Distributed Hash Tables [26] .