Section: Scientific Foundations
PDEs for Particles and Fluids
The scientific activity of the project is concerned with PDEs arising from the physical description of particles and fluids. It covers various viewpoints:

At first, the words “particles and fluids” could simply mean that we are interested independently in models for particles, which can either be considered as individuals (which leads to “N particle models”, N ranging from 1 to many) or through a statistical description (which leads to kinetic equations) as well as in models for fluids like Euler and NavierStokes equations or plasma physics.

However, many particle systems can also be viewed as a fluid, via a passage from microscopic to macroscopic viewpoint, that is, a hydrodynamic limit.

Conversely, a fruitful idea to build numerical solvers for hyperbolic conservation laws consists in coming back to a kinetic formulation. This approach has recently motivated the introduction of the socalled kinetic schemes.

Eventually, one of the main topics of the project is to deal with models of particles interacting with a fluid.
By nature these problems describe multiscale phenomena and one of the major difficulties when studying them lies in the interactions between the various scales: number of particles, size, different time and length scales, coupling...
The originality of the project is to consider a wide spectrum of potential applications. In particular, the word “particles” covers various and very different physical situations, like for instance:
 charged particles: description of semiconductor devices or plasmas;
 photons, as arising in radiative transfer theory and astrophysics;
 neutrons, as arising in nuclear engineering;
 bacteria, individuals or genes as in models motivated by biology or population dynamics;
 planets or stars as in astrophysics;
 vehicles in traffic flow modelling;
 droplets and bubbles, as in Fluid/Particles Interaction models which arise in the description of sprays and aerosols, smoke and dust, combustion phenomena (aeronautics or engine design), industrial process in metallurgy...
We aim at focusing on all the aspects of the problem:

Modelling mathematically complex physics requires a deep discussion of the leading phenomena and the role of the physical parameters. With this respect, the asymptotic analysis is a crucial issue, the goal being to derive reduced models which can be solved with a reduced numerical cost but still provide accurate results in the physical situations that are considered.

The mathematical analysis of the equations provides important qualitative properties of the solutions: wellposedness, stability, smoothness of the solutions, large time behavior... which in turn can motivate the design of numerical methods.

Eventually, we aim at developing specific numerical methods and performing numerical simulations for these models, in order to validate the theoretical results and shed some light on the physics.
The team has been composed in order to study these various aspects simultaneously. In particular, we wish to keep a balance between modelling, analysis, development of original codes and simulations.