Section: Application Domains
In the context of shape optimization of antennas, we can split the existing results in two parts: the two-dimensional modeling concerning only the specific transverse mode TE or TM, and treatments of the real physical 3-D propagation accounting for no particular symmetry, whose objective is to optimize and identify real objects such as antennas.
Most of the numerical literature in shape optimization in electromagnetics belongs to the first part and makes intensive use of the 2-D solvers based on the specific 2-D Green kernels. The 2-D approach for the optimization of directivity led recently to serious errors due to the modeling defect. There is definitely little hope for extending the 2-D algorithms to real situations. Our approach relies on a full analysis in unbouded domains of shape sensitivity analysis for the Maxwell equations (in the time-dependent or harmonic formulation), in particular, by using the integral formulation and the variations of the Colton and Kreiss isomorphism. The use of the France Telecom software SR3D enables us to directly implement our shape sensitivity analysis in the harmonic approach. This technique makes it possible, with an adequate interpolation, to retrieve the shape derivatives from the physical vector fields in the time evolution processes involving initial impulses, such as radar or tomography devices, etc. Our approach is complementary to the “automatic differentiation codes” which are also very powerful in many areas of computational sciences. In Electromagnetics, the analysis of hyperbolic equations requires a sound treatment and a clear understanding of the influence of space approximation.