Section: Application Domains
Observation and control of waste-water treatment plants
Control problems frequently arise in the context of the study of biological systems such as waste-water treatment plants. In general, in order to cope with disturbances, modelling errors or parameter uncertainty, one has to take advantage of robust non-linear control design results. These results are based on central theories of modern non-linear control analysis, such as disturbance attenuation of Lyapunov functions.
Waste-water treatments plants are often unstable as soon as bacteria growths exhibit some inhibition. Typically, under a constant feed rate, the wash-out of the reactor (i.e., when biomass is no longer present) becomes an attracting but undesirable equilibrium point . Choosing the dilution rate as the manipulated input is usually a mean for the stabilization about a desired set point, but the most efficient control laws often require a perfect knowledge of the state variables of the system, namely the on-line measurement of all the concentrations, which are generally not accessible (for technical or economical reasons). Most often, only a few sensors are available.
A popular way to achieve stabilization of a control dynamical system under partial knowledge of the state is to first design an “observer” or “software sensor” for the reconstruction of the unobserved variables, and then to couple this estimate with a stabilizing feedback control law, if some “separation principle” is satisfied. Unfortunately, in industrial operating conditions, one cannot thoroughly trust the models that were developed and identified in well-controlled environments such as in laboratory experiments. Engineers have to deal with several uncertainties on parts of the model, as well as on the output delivered by the sensors. During the initialization stage or hitches on the process, the system can be far away from the nominal state, where few empirical data are available. Generally, probabilistic hypotheses cannot be justified regarding the nature of the uncertainty for stochastic models to be considered. On the opposite, reasonable bounds on the unknown parts of the models are available, so that uncertainties can be considered as unknown deterministic inputs.
Consequently, robust observers and control laws need to be developed to cope with the particularities of the uncertainty on the models.