Section: Overall Objectives
The overall objective of MASAIE is to develop and apply methods and tools of control theory and dynamical systems for the mathematical modeling in epidemiology and immunology. The problem at issue is twofold. The first objective is to obtain a better understanding of epidemiological and immunological systems. The second objective is to mathematically study problems arising naturally when addressing questions in the fields of epidemiology and immunology. In our opinion our two endeavors operate in a synergic way : new problems will appear in control theory and their study will give new tools to epidemiology and immunology.
In this regard the first step is modeling. Modeling has always been a strong activity in control theory, however modeling in epidemiology and immunology has some specificities not encountered in engineering. The systems are naturally complex and have highly nonlinear parts. A second characteristic is the paucity of data. These data, when existing, are often imprecise or corrupted by noise. Finally rigorous laws seldom exists, this is a major difference with engineering. In this situation modeling is a back and forth process between the “mathematician" and the “biologist." When modeling, it is necessary to decide what is important and what can be neglected. This is not an easy task. A term or a structure, that can be discarded by the biologist modeler, turns out to give an unexpected behavior to the system. On the other side the biologist wants the more complete model possible, which can be difficult for the mathematical tractability. In MASAIE a close collaboration with researchers in epidemiology and immunology (IMTSSA, INRA, IRD, Institut Pasteur, University of Tübingen) is essential and will be developed.
Beyond the stage of modeling we have the validation, simulation and mathematical analysis of the models. This is also a part of modeling. For example some models can be rejected for inappropriate behavior while others are accepted for their agreement with data. Once again the role of data and the collaboration with researchers in these fields are certainly crucial, but the mathematical analysis cannot be neglected.
Emerging and reemerging diseases have led to a revived interest in infectious diseases and immunology. Our final objective is to propose and study epidemiological and immunological models for
analysis of the spread and control of infectious disease,
a better understanding of the dynamics and behavior of epidemics,
clarification of hypotheses, variables and parameters,
proposition of conceptual results (thresholds, sensitivity analysis ...),
simulation as an experimental tool for building and testing theories,
effective evaluation of field and outbreak data,
planning and evaluation of intervention campaigns.