Section: Scientific Foundations
Structure and modeling
Problems in epidemiology, immunology and virology can be expressed as standard problems in control theory. But interesting new questions do arise. The control theory paradigm, input-output systems built out of simpler components that are interconnected, appears naturally in this context. Decomposing the system into several sub-systems, each of which endowed with certain qualitative properties, allow the behavior of the complete system to be deduced from the behavior of its parts. This paradigm, the toolbox of feedback interconnection of systems, has been used in the so-called theory of large-scale dynamic systems in control theory  . Reasons for decomposing are multiple. One reason is conceptual. For example connection of the immune system and the parasitic systems is a natural biological decomposition. Others reasons are for the sake of reducing algorithmic complexities or introducing intended behavior ...In this case subsystems may not have biological interpretation. For example a chain of compartments can be introduced to simulate a continuous delay  ,  . Analysis of the structure of epidemiological and immunological systems is vital because of the paucity of data and the dependence of behavior on biological hypotheses. The issue is to identify those parts of models that have most effects on dynamics. The concepts and techniques of interconnection of systems (large-scale systems) will be useful in this regard.
In mathematical modeling in epidemiology and immunology, as in most other areas of mathematical modeling, there is always a trade-off between simple models, that omit details and are designed to highlight general qualitative behavior, and detailed models, usually designed for specific situations, including short-terms quantitative predictions. Detailed models are generally difficult to study analytically and hence their usefulness for theoretical purposes is limited, although their strategic value may be high. Simple models can be considered as building blocks of models that include detailed structure. The control theory tools of large-scale systems and interconnections of systems is a mean to conciliate the two approaches, simple models versus detailed systems.