Section: Application Domains
See modules 3.5 , 6.1 , 6.3 , 6.6 , and 7.7 .
Civil engineering is a currently renewing scientific research area, which can no longer be restricted to the single mechanical domain, with numerical codes as its central focus. Recent and significant advances in physics and physical chemistry have improved the understanding of the detailed mechanisms of the constitution and the behavior of various materials (see e.g. the multi-disciplinary general agreement cnrs -Lafarge). Moreover, because of major economical and societal issues, such as durability and safety of infrastructures, buildings and networks, civil engineering is evolving towards a multi-disciplinary field, involving in particular information sciences and technologies and environmental sciences.
These last ten years, monitoring the integrity of the civil infrastructure has been an active research topic, including in connected areas such as automatic control, for mastering either the aging of the bridges, as in America (US, Canada) and Great Britain, or the resistance to seismic events and the protection of the cultural heritage, as in Italy and Greece. The research effort in France seems to be more recent, maybe because a tendency of long term design without fatigue oriented inspections, as opposite to less severe design with planned mid-term inspections. One of the current thematic priorities of the Réseau de Génie Civil et Urbain (RGCU) is devoted to constructions monitoring and diagnostics. The picture in Asia (Japan, and also China) is somewhat different, in that the demand for automatic data processing for global SHM systems is much higher, because recent or currently built bridges are equipped with hundreds if not thousands of sensors, in particular the Hong Kong-Shenzen Western Corridor and Stonecutter Bridge projects.
Among the challenges for vibration-based bridges health monitoring, two major issues are the different kinds of (non measured) excitation sources and the environmental effects  . Typically the traffic on and under the bridge, the wind and also the rain, contribute to excite the structure, and influence the measured dynamics. Moreover, the temperature is also known to affect the eigenfrequencies and mode-shapes, to an extent which is significant w.r.t. the deviations to be monitored. This is addressed in module 6.6 .