Section: Application Domains
Nowadays, our thoughts lead us to define four different research tracks, that we are describing below.
The theoretical track.
It is rightful to wonder why there is only a few fundamental studies on computer viruses while it is one of the important flaws in software engineering. The lack of theoretical studies explains maybe the weakness in the anticipation of computer diseases and the difficulty to improve defenses. For these reasons, we do think that it is worth exploring fundamental aspects, and in particular self-reproducing behaviors.
The virus detection track.
The crucial question is how to detect viruses or self-replicating malwares. Cohen demonstrated that this question is undecidable. The anti-virus heuristics are based on two methods. The first one consists in searching for virus signatures. A signature is a regular expression, which identifies a family of viruses. There are obvious defects. For example, an unknown virus will not be detected, like ones related to a 0-day exploit. We strongly suggest to have a look at the independent audit  in order to understand the limits of this method. The second one consists in analysing the behavior of a program by monitoring it. Following  , this kind of methods is not yet really implemented. Moreover, the large number of false-positive implies this is barely usable. To end this short survey, intrusion detection encompasses virus detection. However, unlike computer virology, which has a solid scientific foundation as we have seen, the IDS notion of “malwares” with respect to some security policy is not well defined. The interested reader may consult  .
The virus protection track.
The aim is to define security policies in order to prevent malware propagation. For this, we need (i) to define what is a computer in different programming languages and setting, (ii) to take into consideration resources like time and space. We think that formal methods like rewriting, type theory, logic, or formal languages, should help to define the notion of a formal immune system , which defines a certified protection.
The experimentation track.
This study on computer virology leads us to propose and construct a “high security lab” in which experiments can be done in respect with the French law. This project of “high security lab” in one of the main project of the CPER 2007-2013.