## Section: Application Domains

### Nanophysics

Kinetic models like the Vlasov equation can also be applied for the study of large nano-particles as approximate models when ab initio approaches are too costly.

In order to model and interpret experimental results obtained with large nano-particles, ab initio methods cannot be employed as they involve prohibitive computational times. A possible alternative resorts to the use of kinetic methods originally developed both in nuclear and plasma physics, for which the valence electrons are assimilated to an inhomogeneous electron plasma. The LPMIA (Nancy) possesses a long experience on the theoretical and computational methods currently used for the solution of kinetic equation of the Vlasov and Wigner type, particularly in the field of plasma physics.

Using a Vlasov Eulerian code, we have investigated in detail the microscopic electron dynamics in the relevant phase space. Thanks to a numerical scheme recently developed by Filbet et al. [76] , the fermionic character of the electron distribution can be preserved at all times. This is a crucial feature that allowed us to obtain numerical results over long times, so that the electron thermalization in confined nano-structures could be studied.

The nano-particle was excited by imparting a small velocity shift to the electron distribution. In the small perturbation regime, we recover the results of linear theory, namely oscillations at the Mie frequency and Landau damping. For larger perturbations nonlinear effects were observed to modify the shape of the electron distribution.

For longer time, electron thermalization is observed: as the oscillations are damped, the center of mass energy is entirely converted into thermal energy (kinetic energy around the Fermi surface). Note that this thermalization process takes place even in the absence of electron-electron collisions, as only the electric mean-field is present.