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Section: Scientific Foundations

Statistics of HMM

Hidden Markov models (HMM) form a special case of partially observed stochastic dynamical systems, in which the state of a Markov process (in discrete or continuous time, with finite or continuous state space) should be estimated from noisy observations. The conditional probability distribution of the hidden state given past observations is a well–known example of a normalized (nonlinear) Feynman–Kac distribution, see  3.2 . These models are very flexible, because of the introduction of latent variables (non observed) which allows to model complex time dependent structures, to take constraints into account, etc. In addition, the underlying Markovian structure makes it possible to use numerical algorithms (particle filtering, Markov chain Monte Carlo methods (MCMC), etc.) which are computationally intensive but whose complexity is rather small. Hidden Markov models are widely used in various applied areas, such as speech recognition, alignment of biological sequences, tracking in complex environment, modeling and control of networks, digital communications, etc.

Beyond the recursive estimation of a hidden state from noisy observations, the problem arises of statistical inference of HMM with general state space  [32] , including estimation of model parameters, early monitoring and diagnosis of small changes in model parameters, etc.

Large time asymptotics   A fruitful approach is the asymptotic study, when the observation time increases to infinity, of an extended Markov chain, whose state includes (i) the hidden state, (ii) the observation, (iii) the prediction filter (i.e. the conditional probability distribution of the hidden state given observations at all previous time instants), and possibly (iv) the derivative of the prediction filter with respect to the parameter. Indeed, it is easy to express the log–likelihood function, the conditional least–squares criterion, and many other clasical contrast processes, as well as their derivatives with respect to the parameter, as additive functionals of the extended Markov chain.

The following general approach has been proposed

This programme has been completed in the case of a finite state space [7] , and has been generalized  [39] under an uniform minoration assumption for the Markov transition kernel, which typically does only hold when the state space is compact. Clearly, the whole approach relies on the existence of an exponential stability property of the prediction filter, and the main challenge currently is to get rid of this uniform minoration assumption for the Markov transition kernel  [36] , [9] , so as to be able to consider more interesting situations, where the state space is noncompact.

Small noise asymptotics   Another asymptotic approach can also be used, where it is rather easy to obtain interesting explicit results, in terms close to the language of nonlinear deterministic control theory  [59] . Taking the simple example where the hidden state is the solution to an ordinary differential equation, or a nonlinear state model, and where the observations are subject to additive Gaussian white noise, this approach consists in assuming that covariances matrices of the state noise and of the observation noise go simultaneously to zero. If it is reasonable in many applications to consider that noise covariances are small, this asymptotic approach is less natural than the large time asymptotics, where it is enough (provided a suitable ergodicity assumption holds) to accumulate observations and to see the expected limit laws (law of large numbers, central limit theorem, etc.). In opposition, the expressions obtained in the limit (Kullback–Leibler divergence, Fisher information matrix, asymptotic covariance matrix, etc.) take here a much more explicit form than in the large time asymptotics.

The following results have been obtained using this approach


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