Section: Scientific Foundations
Dynamic wide coverage lexical resources
Participants : Benoît Sagot, Laurence Danlos, Éric Villemonte de La Clergerie.
Grammatical formalisms and associated parsing generators are useful only when used together with linguistic resources (lexicons, grammars) so as to build operational parsers, especially when considering modern lexically oriented grammatical formalisms. Hence, linguistic resources are the topic of the following section.
However, wide coverage linguistic resources are scarce and expensive, because they are difficult to build, especially when hand-crafted. This observation motivates us to investigate methods, along to manual development techniques, to automatically or semi-automatically acquire, supplement and correct linguistic resources.
Linguistic expertise remains a very important asset to benefit efficiently from such techniques, including those described below. Moreover, linguistically oriented environments with adequate collaborative interfaces are needed to facilitate the edition, comparison, validation and maintenance of large scale linguistic resources. Just to give some idea of the complexity, a syntactic lexicon, as described below, should provide rich information for several tens of thousands of lemma and several hundreds of thousands of forms.
Successful experiments have been conduced by Alpage members with different languages for the automatic acquisition of morphological knowledge from raw corpora  . At the syntactic level, work has been achieved on automatic acquisition of atomic syntactic information and automatic detection of errors in the lexicon  , . At the semantic level, automatic wordnet development tools have been described  ,  ,  ,  . All such techniques need of course to be followed by manual validation, so as to ensure high-quality results.
For French, these techniques, and others, have lead some Alpage members (both Inria and Paris 7) to develop one of the main syntactic resources for French, the Lefff  , , as well as a wordnet for French, the WOLF  , the first freely available resource of the kind.
In the last 2 years, Alpage members have shown how to benefit from other more linguistically-oriented resources, such as the Lexique-Grammaire and Dicovalence , in order to improve the coverage and quality of the Lefff and the WOLF. This work is a good example of how Inria and Paris 7 members of Alpage fruitful collaborate: this collaboration between NLP computer scientists and NLP linguists have resulted in significant advances which would have not been possible otherwise.