Team LeD

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Section: Software

The eXtended Meta-Grammar (XMG) Compiler and Tools

A metagrammar compiler generates automatically a grammar from a reduced description called a MetaGrammar. This description captures the linguistic properties underlying the syntactical rules of a grammar. LED has been working on metagrammar compilation since 2001 and several tools have been developed within this framework starting with the MGC system of Gaiffe et al. [57] to the newly developed XMG system of Crabbé et al. [55] .

The XMG system is a 2nd generation compiler that proposes (a) a representation language allowing the user to describe in a factorised and flexible way the linguistic information contained in the grammar, and (b) a compiler for this language (using a Warren Abstract Machine-like architecture). An innovative feature of this compiler is the fact that it allows to describe several linguistic dimensions, and in particular it is possible to define a relatively natural Syntax/Semantics interface within the metagrammar.

The compiler actually supports two syntactic formalisms (Tree Adjoining Grammars and Interaction Grammars) and the description both of the syntactic and of the semantic dimension of natural language. The generated grammars are in XML format, which makes them easy to reuse. Plug-ins have been realised with the LLP2 parser [56] , with Éric de la Clergerie's DyALog parser [72] and with the GenI generator [61] . Future work concerns the modularisation and the extension of XMG to define a library of languages describing linguistic data allowing the user to describe his/her own target formalism.

Developed under the supervision of Denys Duchier, the XMG compiler is the result of an intensive collaboration with the INRIA team Calligramme. It has been implemented in Oz/Mozart and runs under the Linux, Mac, and Windows platforms. It is available with tools easing its use with parsers and generators (tree viewer, duplicate remover, anchoring module, metagrammar browser).

The system is currently being used and tested by Owen Rambow (University of Columbia, USA) and Laura Kallmeyer (University of Tuebingen, Germany).

Version: 1.1.6

License: CeCILL

Web site:


Project(s): XMG

Authors: Benoît Crabbé, Denys Duchier, Joseph Le Roux, Yannick Parmentier

Contact: Benoît Crabbé, Claire Gardent, Yannick Parmentier


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