Section: New Results
Applications covered by this year's results
The above sections presented our research in terms of fundamental tools, models and algorithms. A complementary point of view is to describe it in terms of application domains. The following sections describe our contribution to each of these domains, with reference to the tools we relied on if they were already presented above.
Interactive modelling systems
Several of the tools we are developing are devoted to a new generation of interactive modelling systems:
The multiresolution subdivision surfaces presented in section 6.1.2 have been used for interactive multiresolution modelling.
The space deformations developed by our external collaborator Alexis Angelidis (see section 6.1.4 ), and in particular the extension to constant volume deformations are used for intuitive geometric editing of shapes of a constant topological genius.
The real-time physically-based model for virtual clay presented in section 6.6.1 is dedicated to a sculpting system as close as possible to interaction with real clay: in the context of Guillaume Dewaele's thesis, co-advised by Radu Horaud from the MOVI group, the virtual clay model is currently being combined with a vision interface for capturing the motion of the user's hands. So our clay model will be directly sculpted by fingers, making it usable for any artist, or even as an educational tool for small children.
Synthesis of natural sceneries
The diverse fundamental tools we are developing can be combined to allow the large scale specification, efficient rendering and animation of vegetation (prairies, trees, forest, etc). The specification of complete natural sceneries is one of the aims of the Dereve II project (see section 8.1.1 ).
Some of our work on geometric modelling and physically-based animation has been successfully applied to the medical domain:
Our tools for efficient physically-based simulation, and in particular our new contributions to collision detection and response (see section 6.6.3 ), is being used in a new European medical project called Odysseus (see section 8.3.2 ).
Furthermore, Mathieu Nesme's PhD research (see section 6.6.4 ), which is co-advised by Yohan Payam of laboratory TIMC, concentrates on the development of improved models for human tissue simulation for surgical simulations.
Animation of virtual creatures
Several of our new models and algorithms contribute to the animation of virtual creatures. This includes our work on motion capture from video (general body motion, faces, and body deformations, see section 6.7 ); the procedural method we developed for adding skin details (see section 6.5.1 ); the physically-based animation tools (sections 6.6.3 and 6.6.4 ) that we are currently applying to the simulation of virtual garments; and our adaptive animation algorithm for efficiently computing hair motion (see 6.6.5 ).
Except for the extraction of an animal's global motion from video, all of these contributions are developed within projects with industrial partners (see Virtual Actors RIAM project section 7.3 and RNTL PARI project section 7.2 ).
A first work towards the perceptive evaluation of animation has been achieved in collaboration with the dept. of Psychology of the U. of Geneva for facial animation. A study has been made to evaluate what different parts of the brain are activated when a picture of an expressive face is showed to a subject, with gaze pointing towards the subject or not. It has been necessary to adapt a 3D model to standard photographs of expressive faces, so that the eye orientation on the photographs could be accurately controlled in a realistic manner.