## Section: Scientific Foundations

### Guiding principles

Early approaches to Geometry Processing and Light Simulation were driven by a Signal Processing approach. In other words, the solution of the problem is obtained after applying a
*filtering scheme* multiple times. This is for instance the case of the mesh smoothing operator defined by Taubin in his pioneering work
[25] . Recent approaches still inherit from this background. Even if the general trend moves to Numerical Analysis, much
work in Geometry Processing still study the coefficients of the gradient of the objective function
*one by one* . This intrinsicly refers to
*descent* methods (e.g. Gauss-Seidel), which are not the most efficient, and do not converge in general when applied to meshes larger than a certain size (30000 facets).

In the approach that we develop in the ALICE project, Geometry Processing and Light Simulation are systematically restated as a (possibly non-linear and/or constrained) functional optimization problem. As a consequence, studying the properties of the minimum is easier: the minimizer of a multivariate function can be more easily characterized than the limit of multiple applications of a smoothing operator. This simple remark makes it possible to derive properties (existence and uniqueness of the minimum, injectivity of a parameterization, and independence to the mesh).

Besides helping to characterize the solution, restating the geometric problem as a numerical optimization problem has another benefit. It makes it possible to design efficient numerical optimization methods, instead of the iterative relaxations used in classic methods.

Richard Feynman (Nobel Prize in physics) mentions in his lectures that physical models are a ``smoothed'' version of reality. The global behavior and interaction of multiple particles is captured by physical entities of a larger scale. According to Feynman, the striking similarities
between equations governing various physical phenomena (e.g. Navier-Stokes in fluid dynamics and Maxwell in electromagnetism) is an illusion that comes from the way the phenomena are modeled and represented by ``smoothed'' larger-scale values (i.e.,
*fluxes* in the case of fluids and electromagnetism). Note that those larger-scale values do not necessarily directly correspond to a physical intuition, they can reside in a more abstract ``computational'' space. For instance, representing lighting by the coefficients of a finite element
is a first step in this direction. More generally, our approach consists in trying to get rid of the limits imposed by the classic view of the existing solution mechanisms, that come from a physical intuition. Instead of trying to mimic the physical process, we try to restate the problem as
an abstract numerical computation problem, on which more sophisticated methods can be applied (a plane flies like a bird, but it does not flap its wings). We try to consider the problem from a computational point of view, and focus on the link between the numerical simulation process and the
properties of the solution of the Rendering Equation. Note also that the numerical computation problems yielded by our approach reside in a high-dimensional space (millions of variables). To ensure that our solutions scale-up to scientific and industrial data from the real world, we develop
algorithmic, software and hardware architectures, and distribute these solutions in both open-source software (
Graphite ) and industrial software (
Gocad ).