Team : imara
Section: Scientific Foundations
System modeling and management
The demand of transportation is a rapid growing sector. Even if some big cities try to limit the use of cars, there must be alternate transportation means, e.g. metro, taxi, bus etc. The challenge to the community and for the research is to propose plan for the long term and solution for the integration of the new techniques into the real world. Since the problem of transportation (and particularly of cars) is most acute in cities, this is the place where we concentrate our research effort. Of course some system could be then transposed into medium-sized cities or into the countryside.
In each of the following sections, there are 4 steps to achieve a good transportation system:
measurement and analysis of the traffic.
modeling of the transportation system;
analysis of the model using mathematical analysis or through simulation;
optimization of the required performance.
There are several fields where system modeling and management are applied.
Better use of existing infrastructure and vehicles
One of the great challenge of automobile industry and of cities administrations in the next years is to integrate cars in a saturated environment (traffic congestion, parking...). Research are currently done on regulation methods such as passage toll, car park toll, users information and multi-modality. This is a very topical theme as illustrated by London toll zone. This implies modeling the traffic in urban areas, modeling the behavior of drivers and measure by mathematical analysis or on simulations the results of various scenario and eventually optimizing parameters (toll, etc.).
Real time infrastructures management is also a problem of resources optimization but a dynamic one. The question is to control accesses to avoid saturation phenomena which could make fall the performances of the system. Studies should be led on real cases, such as for example a by-pass in Paris area.
Designing new infrastructure
With new infrastructures, the problem is to redesign the city transportation system and to measure the improvement linked to another kind of management. Since the space is very rare in central areas, deploying new infrastructures (e.g. tramway) often means replacing part of the existing infrastructures (e.g. roads). This can only properly done when the impact of the new infrastructure has been well designed, which means, as for the optimization of existing infrastructures, measuring, modeling and optimizing.
Increasing the transportation choice
With the automated road, problems to be treated relate primarily to the dimensioning of the infrastructures and the management of these infrastructures. Dimensioning can be approached by techniques of stochastic modeling at the microscopic level or more traditionally by techniques of operational research. IMARA already used successfully these techniques for the Praxitèle program and account to develop them within the framework of the automated road to provide tools which will make it possible to justify (or to invalidate) the investments.