Section: New Results
Applications covered by this year's results
The above sections presented our research in terms of fundamental tools, models and algorithms. A complementary point of view is to describe it in terms of application domains. The following sections describe our contribution to each of these domains, with references to the tools we relied on if they were already presented above.
Interactive modeling systems
Several of the tools we are developing are devoted to a new generation of interactive modeling systems, following our general methodology based on sculpting and sketching metaphors:
The hand-on interface presented in Section 6.1.2 is dedicated to interactively deforming virtual objects, such as we do when we sculpt with clay in real;
The sketching tools presented in Section 6.1.4 addressed both the design of general free form shapes and the combination of a sketch-based interface with a priori knowledge on the object being modeled. They are used in the industrial contract with Axiatec (see Section 7.2 ).
We are currently working at ways to combine both techniques, in other to inspire from sketching for initial shape design, and from sculpting techniques for further deformation.
Synthesis of natural scenes
Many of the diverse fundamental tools we are developing (see Sections 6.3.4 , 6.3.3 ) are contributing to the long term, general goal of modeling and animating natural scenes. Many of them have been combined to allow the large scale specification (up to whole planets), efficient rendering and animation of landscapes (see Section 5.4 ). A licence of this software has been sold to RSA Cosmos, a company developing digital planetariums. Proland is also used in the MarketSimGame project (see Section 7.4 ).
Some of our work on geometric modeling and physically-based animation has been successfully applied to the medical domain.
Our tools for efficient physically-based simulation, and in particular our new contributions to robust finite elements  (see section 6.2.1 ) are being used in the European medical project called Passport for Liver Surgery (see Section 8.1.1 ).
Physical simulation has a growing importance in our activity. The scientific work of François Faure and the software development of SOFA (section 5.2 ) where mainly targeted at medical simulation in the recent years. However, interactive medical simulation is such a complex goal that the tools and methods developed to reach it such as complex materials and geometries  ,  ,  ( sections 6.2.1 and 6.2.3 ), collision detection, parallelization  (section 6.2.2 ) have applications in other domains such as cloth simulation, sound synthesis, civil engineering (ANR Vucain, section 8.2.5 and BQR Fissures, section 8.3.2 ), discrete mechanics simulation (ANR RepDyn, section 8.2.6 ), and CAD (ANR Romma, section 8.2.7 ).
Our work on Visualization (see Sections 6.3.1 and 6.3.2 ) is applied by our current and former industrial partners from the energy sector, EdF R&D and CEA/CESTA, to improve the postprocessing of their data. The Eye Dome Lighting shading algorithm implemented during the PhD of Chrisitian Boucheny will be made publicly available in the VTK library.